Question 1 Name any 2 antibiotics?
Question 2 Name diseases which can be prevented by vaccination?
Question 3 Name the scientist who discovered the vaccine for small pox?
Question 4 Name the scientist who discovered penicillin?
Question 5 What are antibiotics?
Question 6 What precautions must be taken while taking antibiotics?
Question 7 Why antibiotics are not effective against common cold?
Question 8 What is a vaccine?
Question 9 How does a vaccine work?
Question 10 Why are children given vaccination?
Question 11 Name the diseases that can be cured by vaccination?
Medicinal use of Micro-Organism
A medicine which stops the growth of or kill the disease causing micro-organism is called antibiotics.
The source of antibiotic medicine is micro-organism. The antibiotic are manufactured by growing specific micro-organism.
For Example: Penicillin, Streptomycein, Erythromycin, Tetracycline etc.
The first antibiotic penicillin was discovered by chance and extracted from the tiny fungus called penicillium. In 1929, Alexander Fleming discovered it.
Antibiotic are very effective in curing diseases caused by micro-organism such as bacteria and fungi. Antibiotics are not effective against diseases caused by virus.
Precautions to be observed in the use of antibiotics
Some of the precautions to be observed in the use of antibiotics are as follow:
1) They should be taken only on the advice of a qualified doctor.
2) They should be taken in proper dose.
3) A person must complete the full course of antibiotics prescribed by the doctor.
4) They should not be taken unnecessarily.
Antibiotics are even mixed with the feed of live stock and poultry birds to control microbial diseases in animals. They are used to control many plant diseases.
A vaccine is a special kind of preparation which provides immunity against a particular disease.
Vaccine are given to healthy person so that they may not get certain diseases throughout their life.
When the vaccine containing dead or weakened but alive micro-organism of a disease(which are harmless and do not actually give a disease).
When the vaccine containing dead or alive micro-organism is introduced into the body of a healthy person orally by mouth or by injection, the body of that person responds by producing some substances called antibiotics in its blood. These antibiotics kill any alive disease causing micro-organism present in the vaccine.
Some of the antibiotics remain in the blood of the person for a very long time and fight against the same micro-organism and kill them if they happens to enter the body naturally at a later date.
A vaccine develops immunity from a disease.
Vaccination is a process of giving a vaccine orally or by injection which provides protection against a particular disease.
The diseases which can be prevented by vaccination of children at proper age are: Polio, smallpox, chicken pox, cholera, measles, hepatitis, tuberculosis, rabies, diphtheria, pertussis.
Edward Jenner discovered the vaccine for small pox.
Other Notes from Chapter 2 Micro Organisms Friend and Foe
- Groups of Micro Organism
- Where do Micro Organism Live
- Useful Micro organism
- Making of Curd and Bread
- Commercial Use of Micro organism
- Increasing Soil Fertility
- Cleaning the Environment
- Harmful Micro Organism
- Carriers of Disease causing micro organism
- Disease Causing Micro organisms in Animals
- Disease Causing Micro-Organism in Plants
- Food poisoning
- Preservation of Food
- Preservation by sun-drying, Heating, Cooling
- Preservation by Deep Freezing,Common Salt, Sugar
- Preservation of food by mustard oil and Vinegar, Chemicals, Pasteurisation, Air-tight Packets
- Nitrogen Fixation
- Nitrogen Cycle