Glimpses of India, Class 10, English, First Flight
Detailed explanation of “Glimpses of India”, including definitions of difficult words. In addition, the explanation is followed by a lesson summary. Also, NCERT Question and Answers are also provided to help students understand this Chapter and do well in their exams.
A Baker from Goa – Introduction
The lesson reflects the strong Portuguese effect on the Goan culture, testifying the fact that the ideologies of the political powers have a strong influence on the lives of common people and also their lifestyles. For instance, bread as a steady food item is a traditional borrowed from the Portuguese , in contrast to chapati or rice as an essential part of a balanced diet in India. A Baker from Goa’ is a pen portrait of a traditional Goan village baker who still has an important place in his society. The narrator is travelling through the memory lane thinking about the loaves of bread a baker delivered every morning.
A Baker from Goa – Summary
In this extract, the author remembers his old days in Goa when the village baker occupied an important place in life. Although, with the passage of time, people do not eat so much bread yet the village bakers are still there. The Portuguese were famous for preparing the loaves of bread. They left Goa long ago. But the traditional work of the bakers can still be seen in Goa he furnaces in which the bread was baked still exist there. The sound of the traditional baker bamboo can still be heard. Someone in the baker’s family still carries on the business and the tradition. These bakers are known as Pader in Goa even today.
The author recalls that a baker used to visit the village twice a day. He used to be the authors friend and guide. He used to carry a bamboo stick. The sound of this stick used to wake up the authors and others from sleep. The servants from the different houses bought loaves. But the author ran to the baker to buy bread-bangles.
The baker’s bamboo stick was a special one. He made the sound jhang, jhang’ by banging his bamboo on the ground. With one hand, the baker supported the basket of bread on his head and with the other, he struck the ground with the bamboo. Whenever someone came to him to buy bread, he placed the basket on the bamboo. The author and the others looked into his basket. In those times, it was a fashion to eat bread with hot tea. The author was so fond of bread that he would not even brush his teeth before eating it.
The village baker was especially important for all occasions. The villagers were much fond of the sweet bread known as “Bol’. Marriage gifts were meaningless without these sweetbreads. Sandwiches, cakes and bolinhas were a must for Christmas as well as for other festivals. All of these were made with the bread. Thus, the presence of a baker’s furnace was very essential in each village. On all occasions, the villagers needed one or another type of cake which could be baked in the furnace.
The baker or the bread-seller wore a special, peculiar dress. It was known as the kabai’. It was a single-piece long frock. It reached down to his knees. During narrator’s childhood, bakers wore trousers which were shorter than full-length and longer than half pants. Even today, if someone wears a half pant, he is said to be dressed like a baker.
The baker usually collected his bills at the end of the month. In the household, the baker’s monthly accounts used to be recorded on some wall with pencil. Baking was a profitable business in those days. The bakers used to be well off. Their families and servants never starved. Their plump bodies seemed like that of a jackfruit.
A Baker from Goa – Word Meanings
|reminiscing nostalgically||thinking fondly of the past|
|loaves||a quantity of bread that is shaped and baked in one piece and usually sliced|
|mixers||persons kneading the flour|
|moulders||persons giving bread a particular shape|
|furnace||very hot enclosed chamber|
|thud||a dull and heavy sound|
|jingle||a light ringing sound|
|parapet||A low protective wall along the edge of a roof|
|prosperous||marked success or economic well-being|
|plump physique||pleasantly fat body|
|open testimony||public statement about a character or quality|
|rebuke||disapproval or scolding|
Coorg – Introduction
Coorg – Summary
Coorg is famous for its coffee plantations, evergreen rainforests and spices. Thirty per cent of its area is covered with the evergreen rainforests. The best season to visit this place is from September to March. The weather is perfect. The air is full of coffee flavour. There are beautiful colonial bungalows in prime corners.
The people of Coorg are independent and brave. They are possibly of Greek or Arabic descent. According to a story, a part of Alexander’s army did not return and was settled here. They married among the locals. This culture can be seen in the martial traditions, marriage and religious customs. Another theory says that these people are originated from the Arabs.
It is evident from the long, black coat worn by the people. It is like the kuffia worn by the Arabs and the Kurds. Coorgi homes have a tradition of hospitality. They are brave people. Their tales of bravery are famous. The Coorg regiment is one of the most decorated in the Indian Army. The first Chief of the Indian Army, General Cariappa, was a Coorgi. Even today, the Kodavus are the only people in India who are allowed to carry firearms without a licence.
There are a variety of natural scenes which can be enjoyed by the tourists. Kaveri, the only river of the area, gets its water from Coorgi hill. This river is full of Mahaseer, a large freshwater fish. One can see elephants, kingfishers, squirrels, and langurs enjoying themselves in the lap of nature. Birds, bees, and butterflies give one a good company here. Elephants enjoy being bathed here by their mahouts. The river and mountain offer various adventurous games like river rafting, canoeing, rappelling, rock climbing, and mountain biking. The trekkers find numerous walking trails in this area.
From the Brahmagiri hills, one can enjoy a panoramic view of the entire landscape of Coorg. There is a sixty-four-acre island of Nisargadhama nearby. It can be reached through a rope bridge. Buddhist monks are settled in Bylakuppe which is very close to this place. Their red, ochre and yellow robes are very attractive to look at, and are amongst many surprises India has to offer, right here is Coorg.
Coorg – Word Meanings
|martial||having to do with war|
|plantations||an area planted with trees|
|Invigorating||make one feel strong, healthy and
full of energy
|colonial||old British style|
|canopies||roof like coverings that
|mainstream||a tradition which most people follow|
|hospitality||generous and friendly treatment of
visitors and guests
|tales of valour||stories of courage and
bravery, usually in war
|most decorated||having received maximum number of
awards for bravery in war
|abound||exist in large numbers|
|Scrubbed||to rub for purpose of clean|
|mahouts||the keepers of elephants|
|rafting||travelling in a river in a raft|
|canoeing||travelling in a river in a canoe|
|rappelling||going down a cliff by sliding down a rope|
|trails||paths created by walking|
|panoramic view||a view of a wide area of land|
|misty||filled with fog|
|ochre||a moderate yellow-orange
to orange colour
Tea from Assam – Introduction
Tea from Assam – Summary
Pranjol belonged to Assam. He was studying in a school in Delhi where Rajvir was his classmate. Pranjol’s father was the manager of a tea garden in Upper Assam. Pranjol invited Rajvir to visit his home during the summer vacation. Both of them travelled to Assam on a train. Rajvir is extremely excited to see the beautiful greenery and tea plantations outside. When the train stopped on the way at a station, a vendor called, ‘chai-garam garam-chai’. They bought some tea and started sipping it. Rajvir told Pranjol that over eighty crore cups of tea are drunk every day throughout the world.
The train pulled out of the station. Pranjol started reading his detective book again. But Rajvir looked out of the window of the moving train. There was a beautiful scenery outside. Soon, the soft green paddy fields were left behind and there were tea bushes everywhere. Rajvir was fascinated by the magnificent view of tea gardens. There were shady trees as well. He was very excited. Pranjol didn’t share Rajvir’s excitement because he had been born and brought up on a plantation. He told Rajvir that Assam has the largest concentration of tea plantation in the world.
Rajvir said that no one really knows who discovered tea. He told Pranjol that there are many legends attached to tea, to the discovery of tea. According to one story, a Chinese emperor discovered tea by chance. He always boiled water before drinking it. One day, a few leaves of the twigs, burning under the pot, fell into the water. As a result, the boiled water got a delicious flavour. It is said that they were tea leaves. According to another Indian legend, Bodhidharma, an ancient Buddhist monk, felt sleepy during meditations. So, he cut off his eyelids and threw them onto the ground. Ten tea plants grew out of the eyelids. The leaves of these plants, when put in hot water and drunk, banished sleep.
Rajvir told Pranjol that tea was first drunk in China in 2700 B.C. Words like ‘chai’ and ‘chini’ are Chinese. Tea came to Europe in the sixteenth century. At first, it was used more as a medicine than as a beverage. Both Rajvir and Pranjol reached Mariani junction. Pranjol’s parents received them on the platform, and soon their car sped off to Dhekiabari, the tea estate managed by Pranjol’s father. On both sides of the passage, were acres and acres of tea bushes.
Women with bamboo baskets on their backs were plucking the newly sprouted tea leaves. They had come there in the sprouting season. Rajvir mentioned that this season lasts from May to July. The best tea is produced during this season. Pranjol’s father told Rajvir that he knew many things about tea plantations. He said that he hopes to learn more about tea there.
Tea from Assam – Word Meanings
|buried his nose in||started reading|
|backdrop||Scenery at the back|
|legends||a story from the past that is believed by many
people but cannot be proved to be true
|ascetic||a person with incredible self discipline|
|dwarfing||making something appear small|
|sturdy||strongly and solidly built|
|billowing||a moving cloud or mass of smoke|