Question 1 What is meant by climate? Explain with the help of an example? Name the four major types of climate?
Question 2 State the factors which affect the climate of a place? What is the difference in the locations of Srinagar and Thiruvananthapuram? How do their climates differ?
Question 3 State few factors which affect the climate of a place?
The average weather pattern at a place taken over a long period is called the climate of that place. If the temperature at a place is high most of the time, then we say that the climate of that place is hot. If there is heavy rainfall on most of the days at that place, then we say that the climate of that place is hot and wet (or hot and humid).
Four major types of climates in the world
(1) Polar Climate
Polar climate is always very cold. Polar regions have the coldest climate in the world. The air is so cold in polar regions of the earth that water falls there as snow. So, the air contains very little water vapour (or moisture) at the poles. Thus, the polar climate is extremely cold and dry.
(2) Temperate climate
A climate which is neither very hot in summer nor very cold in winter is called temperate Climate.In temperate climate, there is moderate rain and snowfall.
(3) Tropical Climate
A climate having very high temperatures and high humidity is called tropical climate. Thus, tropical climate is very hot and humid. There is usually a lot of rain in tropical climate.
(4) Desert Climate
Desert climate is very hot during the day. There is little rain in desert areas so the desert climate is also dry. Thus, desert climate is very hot and dry.
Our climate depends on our position on the earth and our distance from the sun. The regions around the equator of earth called tropical regions (where the sun shines directly overhead) get the maximum heat from the sun and have a very hot climate. As a region gets more and more away from the equator (towards the poles), the amount of sun’s heat received by the region goes on decreasing, leading to gradually cooler climates. The poles of the earth are at the maximum distance from the sun. Due to this, the sun’s rays have to travel much more to reach the polar regions of earth which makes them lose much of their heat. The polar regions of earth (near north pole and south pole of earth) receive the minimum amount of sun’s heat, so the polar regions of earth have an extremely cold climate. The climate in tropical region is very hot whereas that in polar regions is extremely cold. The tropical regions and polar regions are the two regions of the earth which have extreme climatic conditions.
Factors Which Affect Climate
(1) Temperature and rainfall
Whether place is located on high mountains or on plains (flat ground). A place at higher altitude will have a cooler climate than another place on plains (flat ground). This is why hill stations always have a cool climate
(3) Location with respect to the sea
Whether place is located near the sea or far away from the sea. Sea-water heats up slowly and also cools down slowly. This has a moderating effect on the climate of coastal areas. The temperatures in coastal areas are neither very high nor very low.
The mean temperature for a given month is found in two steps:
1) First we find the average of temperatures recorded during the month.
2) Second we calculate the average of such average temperatures over many years.
The mean temperatures are found for the maximum as well as the minimum temperatures for the month.
1) Srinagar is situated at high altitude on a mountain in the Northern part of India whereas Thiruvananthapuram is situated on plains at sea level in the south-west part of India.
2) Srinagar is located very far away from the sea whereas Thiruvananthapuram is located near the sea.
3) Srinagar is located quite far away from the equator whereas Thiruvananthapuram is comparatively nearer to the equator.
So, due to their totally different positions on earth, Srinagar and Thiruvananthapuram have entirely different climates.
(1) In Srinagar, the temperatures round the year are neither very low nor very high. Also, the rainfall is neither very low nor very high. Thus, Srinagar has a moderately hot and wet climate.
(2) In Thiruvananthapuram , the temperatures round the year are quite high. Also, the rainfall is very high. Thus, Thiruvananthapuram has a very hot and wet climate.
Rajasthan state lies in the Western region of India. In Rajasthan, the temperature is very high during most part of the year, so it is very hot. Rajasthan receives very little rainfall, so it is dry, Thus, the climate of Rajasthan is hot and dry This is the typical desert climate.
The North-East India (like Assam) receives rain for a major part of the year, therefore, we can say that the climate of North-East India is wet.
Weather is the day-to-day condition of the atmosphere at a place whereas climate is the average weather pattern at a place taken over a long period of time