Question 1 Describe the mismanagement of water at the level of Water Supply Department?
Question 2 Describe the various steps which can be taken for proper management of water?
Question 3 Describe the mismanagement of water at the individual level?
Question 4 When is the World Water Day celebrated?
Question 5 What is meant by drip irrigation?What is its advantage?
Question 6 What will happen if potted plant are not watered even for few days?
Question 7 What will be the effect of water scarcity on plants?
Distribution of Water
The most important factor responsible for the uneven distribution of water in various parts of the earth is the rain. Some places on the earth have good amount of rain and are water-rich. There are some places on earth (such as deserts) which have little rainfall and face water scarcity.
Excessive rainfall causes floods whereas very little rainfall (or absence of rainfall) causes drought .
For example:Assam State in our country gets an average annual rainfall of 280 centimetres (which is very high) whereas Rajasthan gets an average annual rainfall of only about 49 centimetres (which is quite low). Assam gets floods every year whereas Rajasthan has to face water shortage.
Mismanagement of Water
It may be possible that we are living in an area where there is sufficient rainfall and yet there is shortage of water. This can happen if there is mismanagement of water resources leading to the wastage of water.
(1) Mismanagement of Water by Water Supply Department: When water is supplied by the Water Supply Department through pipes, not all the water may reach the destination.
Many times the big water supply pipes leaking and a lot of water gushing out of these pipes. The leaking pipes lead to the wastage of precious water. It is the responsibility of the Water Supply Department of the town or city to stop this mismanagement of water by fixing the leaking water pipes quickly.
Sometimes the dirty sewer water also gets mixed with the drinking water supply.
(2) Mismanagement of Water at the Individual Level: All of us waste a lot of water while brushing teeth, shaving, bathing, washing clothes, washing utensils, watering the plants and during many other activities.
Leaking taps in our houses are another source of huge water wastage.
(3) Mismanagement of Rainwater: Most of the rainwater which falls around us during rainy season just flows away into dirty water drains and becomes useless. The concerned Government Department as well as the public are responsible for the mismanagement and wastage of this rainwater. This is because rainwater can be used to recharge groundwater for future use.
Proper Management of Water
Steps which can be taken for the proper management of water are :
(1) Rainwater Harvesting: One way of increasing the availability of water to overcome its shortage is rainwater harvesting. The most important technique of rainwater harvesting is to make rainwater seep into the ground more efficiently by constructing percolation pits and recharge wells so as to recharge groundwater. This water can be pumped out in the times of water shortage.
(2) Revival of Bawris : Bawris were mainly set up in cities and big towns for collecting water so as to provide a water supply to the people during drought periods. With the introduction of piped water supply, the bawris fell into disuse and garbage started piling in them. However, due to the acute water shortage faced by the people in some places, the bawris are being renovated and revived. And because of revival of bawris, the people in these places are managing their water needs well inspite of scanty rains in their area.
(3) Drip Irrigation: Drip irrigation is a technique of watering plants by making use of a system of narrow pipes or tubes with small holes, which deliver water directly at the base of the plants .
Drip irrigation gives water directly to the root zone of plants at a slow rate so that it can be absorbed by the soil without any runoff (or wastage). Thus, drip irrigation minimises the use of water in agriculture.
(4) The wastage of water during the supply of water through pipes, and by the leaking taps in houses and other buildings should be prevented.
(5) Unnecessary use of water and over-drawing of groundwater (through tube-wells, etc.) should be avoided.
We can Minimise Wastage of Water
The various ways to minimise the wastage of water at home are:
(1) Get the leaking taps repaired immediately. Leaking taps waste a lot of water. Turn off the tap immediately after use. Do not keep the tap running all the time while brushing the teeth.
(2) Take bath by filling water in a bucket and not directly under the flowing tap. Wash the utensils by filling water in a basin and not under the running tap.
(3) Use the water from washing rice, vegetables or fruits for watering the plants at home.
(4) Do not use a full flush from the cistern in the toilet when a half flush is sufficient.
(5) Mop the floor instead of washing it daily.
22nd March is celebrated as World Water Day every year.
Effect of Water Scarcity on Plants
If potted plants are not given water for a considerable time, they will die. Thus, sufficient water is essential for maintaining the life of plants. Plants need water to obtain nutrients from the soil, and to make food by the process of photosynthesis.
(1) The scarcity of water will affect the nutrient uptake by the plants and the process of food making (photosynthesis) in plants. So, due to scarcity of water, the plants will not be able to make sufficient food for themselves and for animals (including human beings). This will lead to severe shortage of food leading to famine.
(2) Due to decreased photosynthesis caused by the scarcity of water, the plants will not be able to release sufficient oxygen into the air. The shortage of oxygen in air for breathing will harm all the animals (including human beings).
(3) Plants help in bringing rain by releasing a lot of water vapour into the atmosphere through transpiration. Scarcity of water for plants will reduce transpiration. This will result in lesser rainfall.
Some of the effects of scarcity of water on plants are:
(1) shortage of food
(2) shortage of oxygen for breathing, and
(3) lesser rainfall.
If water is not available to plants at all, then all the plants will die. When there will be no plants, the green nature of our planet (earth) will be lost. In the absence of plants, there will be no food for anyone to eat, no oxygen to breathe, and no enough rainwater. This may lead of the end of all life on the earth.