An element is a substance which cannot be split up into two or more simpler substance by the usual chemical methods of applying heat, light or electric energy.They are made up of only one kind of atom.
The important physical properties of metals are:
Aluminium Foils are used for packing food items.Aluminium sheets are used for making utensils.
Copper is used in making utensils.
Copper and Aluminium wires are used in electrical wiring.
3)Metals are good conductor of heat and electricity:This means that metals allow heat and electricity to pass through them easily.
For Ex:Silver is the best conductor of heat and electricity.
Copper and Aluminium metals are also very good conductors and are used in cooking utensils,water boilers,electric wires.
Lead and mercury are poor conductor of heat and electricity.
4) Metals are lustrous(shiny)and can be polished
For Ex:Gold,Silver,Copper etc
Due to their shiny appearance they are useful in making jewellery and decorative.
The shiny surface of metals makes them good reflectors of light.
5)Metals are generally hard
For Ex:Iron,Copper,Aluminium etc are hard.They can not be cut with knife.Sodium And potassium are exception.They are soft metals and can be cut with knife easily.
6)Metals have high tensile strength(strong)
For Ex:Iron metal is very strong and has very high tensile strength.Due to which it is used in the construction of bridges,building,railways,machines,vehicles etc.
Sodium and Potassium are not strong metals.
7)Metals are solids are room temperature
All metals like copper,aluminium,silver,gold etc are solid at room temperature.
Mercury is the only metal which is liquid at room temperature.
8)Metals have high melting and boiling point
Iron has highest melting point of 1535°C
Copper has melting point of 1083°C
Sodium and Potassium have low melting point.
9)Metals have high densities
Density of iron is 7.8 g/cm3 which is quite high.
Sodium and Potassium metal have low density.
10)Metals are sonorous:This means that metals make a ringing sound when we strike them.
11)Metals usually have a silver or grey colour
Except copper and gold
The important physical properties of non-metals are:
1)Non-Metals are not malleable:This means that non metals can not be beaten into thin sheets with a hammer.They break into small pieces when hammered.They are brittle in nature.
For Ex: Sulphur ,Phosphorus
2)Non-Metals are not ductile:This means that they can not be drawn into thin wires.
For Ex: Sulphur,Phosphorus.When stretched, Sulphur and Phosphorus break into pieces and do not form wires.
3)Non-Metals are bad conductor of heat and electricity:This means that they do not metal allow heat and electricity to pass through them easily.
For Ex: Sulphur ,Phosphorus
Diamond is a non-metal which is a good conductor of heat.
Graphite is a non-metal which is a good conductor of electricity.Therefore it is used for making electrodes.
4) Non-Metals are not lustrous.
They have dull appearance.
For Ex: Sulphur ,Phosphorus.Iodine is a non-metal having lustrous appearance.
5) Non-Metals are generally Soft
They can be easily cut with knife.
For Ex: Sulphur ,Phosphorus.
Diamond(allotrope of carbon) is very hard.
6)Non-Metals have low tensile strength(not strong)
7)Non-Metals are solids,liquid or gases at room temperature.
For Ex:Carbon,sulphur,phosphorus are solids.
Bromine is a liquid.
Hydrogen,oxygen,nitrogen etc are gases.
8)Non-Metals have low melting and boiling point
Only graphite has high melting point.
Most of the non-metals has very low boiling point due to which they exist as gases at room temperature.
9)Non-Metals have low densities
Iodine is the only non-metal having high density.
10)Non-Metals are not sonorous
11) Non-metals have many different colours.
For Ex: Sulphur is yellow
Phosphorus is red or white
Chlorine is yellowish-green
Bromine is red-brown.
The elements which show some properties of metals and some other properties of non-metals are called metalloids.