Question 1 Define the term animal husbandry?
Question 2 What is milch animal?
Question 3 How cows are classified for cattle farming?
Question 4 Write the names and features of indigenous breeds of cow?
Question 5 Write the names and features of breeds of buffaloes with high yield of milk?
Question 6 Why is buffalo milk preferred over cow milk?
Question 7 What characteristics of the parent are generally chosen for breeding?
Question 8 Explain the methods of breeding?
Question 9 Define the term artificial insemination?
Question 10 Give examples of exotic breeds of cows and improved breeds of cows?
Question 11 Give the names and symptoms of viral diseases of cattles?
Question 12 Give the names and symptoms of bacterial diseases of cattles?
Question 13 Give the names and symptoms of parasitic diseases of cattles?
Question 14 What are the main components of feed of cattle?
Question 15 What is the balanced ration of cow?
Question 16 Which method will you suggest for improving the cattle breed and why?
- 1 Animal Husbandry
- 2 Cattle Farming
- 3 (a) Indigenous Breeds of cow
- 4 (b) Breeds of Buffaloes
- 5 Quality of Buffalo Milk
- 6 Methods of breeding animals
- 7 Exotic Breeds of Cows
- 8 Improved Breeds of Cows in India
- 9 Artificial insemination
- 10 Farm Management Practices
- 11 Diseases of Cattles and buffaloes
The branch of agriculture that deals with the feeding, caring and breeding of domestic animals is called animal husbandry.
Husbanding means to use a resource carefully and without waste. Animal farming or animal husbandry requires planning for domestic animal’s shelter, breeding, health, disease control and proper economic utilisation. Our domestic animals or livestock includes those animals which are raised for farm purposes.
e.g: cattle (cow, bull or ox), buffalo, yak, horse, ass, goat, sheep, camel, etc.
The animal based farming practices are under taken by Indian farmers along with agriculture as mixed farming.
Human beings domesticate cattle and buffaloes for milk, meat, leather and transportation. Thus, cattle raising is done to fulfil the specific needs for dairy, draught or dual purpose of breeds. Cow are classified as draught, dairy and dual purpose breeds:
1) Draught breeds:
Their meat is tough and they give little milk. Hence, they are used as beasts of burden in various agricultural practices such as tilling (to plough the land), irrigation (in running the water wheel or Persian wheel) and carting (to transport humans and materials from place to place).
2) Dairy breeds:
They have large digestive systems and a spacious udder because as much as possible of the food they consume must be turned into milk.
3) Dual purpose breeds:
These breeds provide milk as well as help in agricultural tasks. In India, dual-purpose breeds are favoured by farmers because in these breeds the cows are fairly good milk yielders and the bullocks good for draught work.
Milk producing female population of animals is called milch animals or dairy animals. Buffalo and cow are excellent dairy animals, as well as, their males or he-buffaloes and oxen (bullocks) are used for various draft purposes (ie., bullock labour) in agriculture.
Therefore, buffalo and cattle production is done for milk, draft (labour) and dual purposes, i.e., both for milk and draft purposes.
Common breeds of indigenous buffaloes are Murrah, Mehsana, Surti.
Indigenous cows are Red Sindhi, Sahiwal and Gir.
(a) Indigenous Breeds of cow
1) Red Sindhi:
This cow is medium in size and red in colour with dark and light red shades.
This breed of cow is superior to other dairy cows. The animal is large and of heavier built.
This is the native breed of Gir forest in Gujarat. This cow is medium in size and fairly good milk yielder.
(b) Breeds of Buffaloes
The important breeds of buffaloes with high yield of milk are as follows:
This breed has massive body short and tightly curved horns ; adult female weighing 430-500 kg and male 530-575 kg. During its lactation period, its average yield of milk is 1800 to 2500 litres with fat contents up to seven per cent.
This is a breed of Gujarat especially from Vadodara and Mehsana districts. Usually black or gray. Their milk production is about 1200 to 2500 litres. The bullocks/he-buffaloes (average weight 569 kg) are slow but good for heavy work.
Black or brown, eyes prominent, horns are sickle-shaped. Their average milk yield is from 1600 to 1800 litres. The fat content of milk is about 8 to 12 per cent. This breed of
buffalo is capable of adjusting in other parts of the country.
Quality of Buffalo Milk
1) Buffalo has an exceptionally long productive life of about 20 years.
2) Buffalo’s milk is richer in fat, tocopherol (vitamin E), proteins, calcium, phosphorus and contains low sodium, potassium, cholesterol.
3) Buffalo’s milk is ideal for making milk products.
4) Certain vitamins such as vitamin A and D are also present in milk.
Breed Improvement for Higher Production of Milk
Milk production of milching animals depends on their lactation period, i.e., period of milk production between birth of a young one and the next pregnancy.
For example: lactation period of some indigenous breeds of cows are as follows:
1) Red Sindhi – 231 to 345 days
2) Sahiwal -184 to 354 days
3) Gir- 230 to 394 days
Milk production can be increased by increasing lactation period.
Efforts are underway to improve the yield by the development of new and better varieties of livestock by the practice of selective breeding.
This involves mating parents of different varieties, each having some desired trait which are then passed on to the offspring. The different desired traits or characteristics of the parent generally chosen for breeding are the following
1) tolerance to climatic conditions
2) lactation period
3) high yield of the produce (milk/meat)
4) resistance to diseases
5) proper age of reproduction
6) good health
7) general appearance.
The production of milk from our indigenous dairy breeds of cows comes to an average of 6-8 litres per day, whereas exotic breeds of cow provide on an average 60 litres of milk in a day. The lactation period of exotic breeds is relatively longer than our indigenous breeds.
To improve the production of milk of our cows, cross breeding programme has been undertaken at a number of research centres in our country.
Methods of breeding animals
There are two methods of breeding animals:
1) Natural method
2) Artificial method.
1) Natural method of breeding:
It takes place by cross-breeding between the desi (indigenous cow) and the bull of high milk yielding exotic breed by the natural physical mating process during the heat period (fertility period) of cow.
The yield of milk and prolongation of lactation period have significantly improved in successful crossbreeds.
2) Artificial method of breeding:
The process of injecting the semen obtained from desired male bull of high milk yielding breed into the genital reproductive tract of female animal during heat period is called artificial insemination.
It generally gives improved breeds. This method is widely used to improve the qualities of cow, buffaloes, poultry, horse, sheep, goats and pigs.
Exotic Breeds of Cows
1) Jersey (Native of Island of Jersey, in English channel).
2) Holstein – Friesian (Native of Holand)
3) Brown Swiss (Native of Switzerland)
Improved Breeds of Cows in India
1) Karan Swiss (Brown Swiss X Sahiwal)
2) Karan-Fries (Holstein Friesian X Thaparkar)
3) Frieswal – (Holstein Friesian X Sahiwal)
The semen of a healthy and tough animal of high milk yielding breed is collected and preserved by freezing or chemical methods.
This preserved semen is then injected artificially into the genital tract of the female animal during fertility (heat) period.
Farm Management Practices
The requirement of proper cleaning and shelter for cows and buffaloes is must due to two reasons
(i) for the production of clean milk
(ii) for the health of the animal.
a) Cow and buffaloes require regular brushing to remove dirt and loose hairs.
b) They sheltered under roofed sheds that protect them from rain, heat, direct sunlight and cold.
c) The floor of the cattle shed is made brick-lined and sloping for facilitating cleaning and keeping their sitting place dry.
d) In the shelter, the animals are provided with feeding passage and feeding trough.
e) The sheds or shelters should be provided with cross ventilation with sufficient number of inlets and outlets.
Feeding of animal means to provide food to animal.
The food requirement of dairy animals is of two types:
1) Maintenance requirements: The food is required by the animal to support the animal to perform the basic functions of life.
2) Milk producing requirement. It includes the type of food required during lactation period.
Maintenance part of the ration depends upon the body weight, while production part is dependent upon the level and composition of the milk.
1) Components of Cattle Feed
The animal feed includes two types of substances :
(i) Roughage: It largely contains fibres such as green fodder, silage, hay (straw of cereals) and legumes (e.g., berseem, lucerne, cow pea and agathi).
(ii) Concentrates: The concentrates used in feed of cattle and bufalloes are a mixture of substances which are rich in one or more of the nutrients (e.g.,carbohydrates, fats, protein, minerals and vitamins). Concentrates are low in fibres and contain relatively high proteins and other nutrients. Concentrates include cotton seeds, oil seeds, grains of maize, oats, barley, jowar, bajra, gram and their by products such as wheat barn, rice barn (polish), gram husk, oil seed cakes and molasses.
The dairy cattle are given balanced ration, which contains all nutrients in proportionate amounts. A ration is the amount of food which is given to the animal during twenty-four hour period.
The daily average feed (ration) of a cow is given below:
1) Green fodder and dry grasses (roughage) 15 to 20 kg
2) Grain mixture (concentrates) = 4 to 5 kg
3) Water 30 to 35 litres.
Dairy animals require certain additive feeds, which contain antibiotics, minerals and hormones. Such additive feeds promote the growth of the animals, facilitate good yield of milk and protects them from diseases.
Diseases of Cattles and buffaloes
Diseases of dairy animals are broadly classified into following three categories:
1) parasitic diseases:
2) infectious diseases; and
3) non-infectious diseases.
Parasitic diseases: The parasites of cattle may be both external and internal.
The external parasites include fleas, lice (blood-sucking lice), ticks and mites. They live on skin of cows and buffaloes and mainly cause skin diseases.
The internal parasites such as worms affect stomach and intestine of cows and buffaloes and flukes of the host (cow/buffaloe) damage the liver.
Infectious diseases: Infectious diseases are mainly caused by viruses and bacteria.They are contagious diseases and spread by contact from animal to animal.
(a) Examples of viral diseases: Foot and mouth disease, cow pox or vaccinia and Rinderpest. Symptoms of foot and mouth disease include blisters on feet and mouth, excessive formation of saliva , soreness of mouth, diminished appetite and high fever.
(b) Examples of bacterial diseases: Anthrax, Black quarter.
|Cow pox||Fever accompanied by appearance of small nodules|
|Rinder pest||Constipation followed by severe diarrhoea, discharge from the eyes and nostril, loss of appetite|
|Foot-and-mouth||Blisters appear on the mouth and foot resulting in extreme soreness of the parts. Loss of appetite, excessive salivation, high fever accompanied by shivering. Inability to work.|
|Rabies||Marked changes in behaviour, restless, paralysis|
|Dermatitis||Irritation, blisters and eruptions on the skin surface|
|Anthrax||Fever with swelling of body, milk secretion reduced.|
|Haemorrhgic septicemia||High fever, anorexia, increased respiration, marked salivation|
|Black quarter or Black leg||A fatal toxemia especially of young cattle|
|Tuberculosis||Fever, infection of udders, lungs, intestines and other parts.|
|Brucellosis||Sterility due to infection in the reproductive organs, e.g., uterus in females and testes in males.|
|Mastitis||Fever, udders become swollen, milk is watery|
|Salmonellosis||Fever, diarrhoea with blood clots|
|Ringworm||Small, circular, discoloured raised patches|
|External parasites (Lice, ticks)||Live on skin and cause skin disease|
|Internal parasities (Worms, fluke)||Live in the stomach, intestines and damage the liver of cattle|