Agro-based industries: These industries use plant and animal products as raw material.
Cooperative sector industries: These industries are owned and run by producers or suppliers of raw material.
Forest-based industries: These industries use forest products as raw material.
Joint sector industries: These industries are owned and run by both, the people as well as the state.
Product: This is something which is obtained from raw materials by various processes, so that it becomes a thing of use and importance.
Private sector industries: These industries are owned and run by a person or a group of persons.
Public sector industries: These industries are owned and run by the government.
Manufacturing: This refers to changing the raw materials into a usable form, which proves to be more valuable for people.
Mineral-based industries: These industries use mineral ores as raw material.
Marine-based industries: These industries use sea and ocean products as raw material.
Refining: This is the process of deriving the highest possible purity of metal which is obtained from some minerals.
Steel: This is an alloy of iron obtained from iron ore.
Small scale industries: These industries operate on less capital and infrastructure.
Large scale industries: These industries operate on large capital and big infrastructure.
The Textile Industry
The textile industry is concentrated in India, Hong Kong, south Korea, Japan and Taiwan. In 1854, the first modern cotton textile mill was established in Mumbai in India.
The reasons for successful set up of textile mill in India were:
(i) This place has warm and moist climate which is suitable for cotton textile.
(ii) The port was situated nearby for importing machinery and easy availability of raw material and skilled labour influenced the expansion of cotton textile in Mumbai.
Osaka and Ahmedabad both are important textile centres.
They have both similarities and dissimilarities such as :
(i) Ahmedabad produces mainly cotton textiles, whereas, Osaka produces woollen and silk as well.
(ii) Both are situated in densely populated area.
(iii) Osaka textile is based on imported raw material, whereas, Ahmedabad depends on local raw material.
Classification of Industries
On the basis of raw materials used, industries can be classified as
(i) Agro-based industries: The raw materials of these industries consist of plants and animals based products. For example, cotton textile industry.
(ii) Mineral based industries: The raw materials of these industries consist of mineral ores.
For example, iron industry.
(iii) Forest based industries: The raw materials of these industries consist of forest products.
For example, paper industry.
On the basis of ownership, industries are classified as :
(i) Private sector: Owned or operated by an individual or a group of individuals.
(ii) Public sector: Owned and operated by the government.
(iii) Joint sector: Owned and operated by the state and an individual or a group of individuals.
(iv) Co-operative sector: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw material or by both.
(i) The early computers were extremely expensive and large, requiring a lot of space.
(ii) The invention of a small electronic device called chip or IC, changed the shape, size and capabilities of the computers.
(iii) The development of chip led to the availability of Small, powerful and affordable computers and related equipments, which became a key reason for the growth of IT industry.
(iv) IT includes everything that is necessary to process, store or transfer information in digital form.
The differences between information technology industry in Bengaluru and Silicon Valley are:
(i) Silicon Valley has both software and hardware Companies, whereas Bengaluru has only software Companies.
(ii) The cost of development of software is lower in Bengaluru as compared to Silicon Valley.
(iii) Bengaluru is located on Deccan Plateau which has mild climate throughout the year whereas, Silicon Valley has temperate climate.
The IT industry in India is largely concentrated in Bangalore. The guiding factors behind healthy IT industries are:
(i) Availability of skilled personnel with good working experience.
(ii) Largest number of educational institutions.
(iii) The city was having a mild climate with low cost of living.
Iron and Steel Industries
Steel is called the backbone of modern industries because almost everything we use is either made up of steel or is made by using devices and tools made of steel. Steel is tough and can easily be shaped, cut or made into wires. The alloys of steel have unusual hardness, toughness and the ability to resist rusting.
The inputs for the iron and steel industry are raw materials such as iron ore, coal and limestone, along with labour, capital, site and other infrastructure. The process of converting iron ore into steel involves many stages. The raw material is put in the blast furnace where it undergoes smelting and then it is refined.
The factors that contribute to the success of Tata Iron and Steel Company are :
(i) TISCO is located in Sakchi, Jamshedpur and has many geographical benefits. This place is only 32 km away from Kalimati station on the Bengal-Nagpur railway line.
(ii) It is close to the iron ore, coal and manganese deposits as well as to Kolkata, which provides a large market. TISCO gets coal from Jharia coalfields, and iron ore, limestone, dolomite and manganese from Odisha and Chhattisgarh.
(iii) The Kharkai and Subarnarekha rivers ensure sufficient water supply.
There are a lot of similarities between Pittsburgh and Jamshedpur.
(i) Both have an early start.
(ii) Both are located fairly close to raw material source.
(iii) Both are well connected by roads and railways.
Distribution of Iron and Steel Industry in the world is as follows:
(i) Largest iron ore reserves are found in Russia, Brazil, Australia, and India.
(ii) In the production of steel, China is the largest in the world.
(iii) Other important producers of steel are United States, Japan, India, Russia, Germany, South Korea, Brazil, Mexico, Canada and United Kingdom.
The factors which favour the location of steel plant at Jamshedpur are :
(i) High grade hematite ore is obtained from Noamundi mines of Singhbhum.
(ii) Power from D.V.C and coal mines is in close proximity at Jharia and Raniganj.
(iii) Manganese is obtained from Keonjhar district in Odisha.
(iv) Limestone and Dolomite are obtained from Sundergarh (Odisha).
(v) Well-developed network of transport.
(vi) Kolkata provides port facilities.
(vii) Plenty of water is available from the river Damodar.
(viii) Cheap and skilled labour is drawn from nearby states.
(i) The chemicals derived from petroleum and natural gas are called petrochemicals.
(ii) Petrochemicals are used in the manufacturing of plastic, synthetic fibres, drugs, detergents, fertilisers, pesticides and explosives.
(ii) Petrochemical factories are usually located near oil refineries.
The significance of Agro-based industries in Indian economy is as follows: (i) Indian economy is purely an agriculture based economy. (ii) The industrial development of the country depends on the development of agriculture.
(iii) Agriculture provides raw materials.
(iv) Agro based industries provide employment to hundreds of people.
(v) The product of the agro-based industries are exported to other countries and thus our country earns huge foreign exchange.
(vi) These industries also supply many valuable products to the people of our country.
The industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs.(i) The inputs are raw materials, labour, costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure.(ii) The processes include a wide range of activities that convert the raw material into finished products.(iii) The outputs are the end products and the income is earned from them.
Factors which led to the growth of modern industry in India are :
(i) India has a wide variety of raw materials.
(ii) Most regions are well-connected by roads and railways.
(iii) India’s large population provides cheap labour.
BHEL: Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
HAL: Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
DRDO: Defence Research and Development Organisation
Industrial accidents usually happen due to technical failure or irresponsible handling of hazardous material.
The following measures can be taken to reduce the risks of industrial accidents:
(i) Densely populated residential areas should be situated far away from the industrial areas.
(ii) People staying in the vicinity of industries should be aware of the way of storage of toxins or hazardous substances and their possible effects, in case if an accident occurs.
(iii) Fire warning and fighting system should be improved.
(iv) Storage capacity of toxic substances should be limited.
TISCO was established there due to availability of iron ore, coal and manganese in nearby areas. The Kharkai and Subarnarekha rivers provided ample water and Kolkata provided a large market. TISCO was established in 1907 at Sakchi near the confluence of rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai in Jharkhand.