Afforestation : The action of planting trees.
Biosphere : Natural vegetation and wildlife exists in the narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.
Biosphere Reserves : Series of protected areas linked by a global network, which demonstrate the relationship between conservation and development.
CPR : CPR means Community Property Resources. They are commonly owned and shared by communities, e.g. a park, a marriage hall, growing area, etc.
Deforestation : The action of cutting down trees.
Deciduous Forests : Those forests where trees shed their leaves once at a particular time of the year.
Deciduous Forests : Those forests where trees shed their leaves once at a particular time of the year.
Ecosystem : This is the supportive and interdependent life system which exists in the biosphere or the sum total of biotic and abiotic phenomena forms a system.
Evergreen Forests : Those forests where trees never shed their leaves.
Fresh Water : Water which is fit for human consumption.
Land : 30% of the total surface part of earth which is solid.
Land use : The way in which a respective piece of land is put to use or use of land for different purposes such as agriculture , mining, construction etc.
National Parks : A natural area designed to protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for the present and future generations.
Natural Vegetation : Plants and trees are included in natural vegetation.
Parent Rock : The original rock from which a particular soil is formed is known as its parent rock.
Rain Water Harvesting : This is the process of conservation of water under which rainwater is collected so that it can be used in times of water scarcity.
Scavenger : A bird or animal which derives food from dead livestock.
Tundra : The type of vegetation found in extremely cold regions such as the Arctic.
Vanamahotsava : The social programme of planting trees, organized at community level.
Water Cycle : The natural process of constant motion of water by evaporation, condensation and rainfall is known as the water cycle.
Wildlife : Animal kingdom, which includes animals, birds, aquatic creatures and insects.
Wildlife Sanctuaries : This is similar to a national park, but it aims at protection of a particular animal or general wildlife.
Weathering : It refers to the breaking up and decaying of exposed rocks, by change in temperature, frost action, plants, animals and human activity.
Land use Pattern
The change in the culture has resulted in tremendous change in the land use pattern. In the urban areas, people have started encroachment of the common lands to build commercial complexes and housing complexes. In the rural areas, they cut down the forests to expand agricultural land.
There are many physical factors that influence the land use pattern of a country or a region. These are: Topography of the place, soil, climate, availability of water and mineral resources. All of them determine the possible use of land.
Mineral rich regions are favourable for mining purposes. Fertile land is used for agricultural purposes.
The main uses of water resources are as follows :
(a) Domestic uses : It includes household purposes such as washing, drinking, watering the plants, etc.
(b) Industrial uses : In industries, water is mainly used as raw material. Also in most of the industries, hydroelectricity is used for power, which is also generated through water.
(c) Agriculture : It is the largest growing sector in India and thus large percentage of water is used for irrigation in India through various sources such as canals, tanks, wells and tube wells.
All available water on earth is not usable because:
(a) Nearly 97% of the Earth’s total water is in the form of oceans and seas. This is saline water.
(b) Another 2% of water is in the form of ice caps and glaciers.
(c) Only 1% is fresh water which is available for human use. This is present in the form of ground water, in rivers, lakes and in the atmosphere in the form of water vapour.
The main factors responsible for the deterioration of quality and quantity of water resources are:
(a) Rapid increase in population causes increase in demand of water resources.
(b) Increase in pollution of fresh water resources such as rivers, ponds, lakes, etc.
(c) Large-scale migration from rural areas to urban areas adding to the population of urban cities.
(d) Industrialization is one of the major factors for the depletion of water resources.
(a) Lining of the canal to minimise water losses through seepage.
(b) Use of sprinklers to irrigate the field and to control loss of water evaporation.
(c) Drip or trickle irrigation to be practised in dry areas.
(iii) Unplanned agriculture
(iv) Increasing population
(v) Electricity generation
(vi) Domestic misuse of water
Fresh water is the most important substance on the earth. It can neither be added nor subtracted. Its total volume remains constant but its abundance varies from place to place.
This is because it is in constant motion, cycling through the oceans, the air and the land and back again, through the process of evaporation, precipitation and condensation. The cyclic movement of water between the spheres of biosphere, i.e., lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere is termed as water cycle.
Rainwater Harvesting : Process of collecting rain water from rooftops and directing it to an appropriate location and storing it for future use is known as rainwater harvesting.
Water Conservation : Application of various techniques to reduce the use of fresh water to increase the quality and quantity of water resources is known as water conservation.
(c) Dam construction
(d) Linking of rivers
(e) Rainwater Harvesting
(f) Watershed management
Soil is considered as an important resource because:
(a) It is one of the most important resources for agricultural development and storehouse of different types of minerals.
(b) It provides habitat for all biotic phenomena.
(c) It helps in penetration of water to ground water table.
Various factors that are responsible for the formation of soil are as follows :
(a) Parent Rock : It determines the colour and texture of the soil. It also provides the base material for soil and determines the chemical and physical properties. It also determines the mineral content and permeability of the soil.
(b) Climate : It plays a role in disintegrating hard rock into soil particles with the help of weathering. The soil forming processes take place more rapidly during high temperature and heavy rainfall.
(c) Topography : Altitude and slope of a place determine the accumulation of soil.
(d) Time : It determines the thickness of the soil profile.
(e) Organic Material : Flora, fauna and organisms help in decaying small rock particles soil and affect the rate of humus formation.
The main factors responsible for soil degradation are :
(1) Landslides : It involves large-scale displacement soil and rocks from the hilly areas, leading to soil degradation in mountainous regions.
(2) Rain wash : It includes washing up of the topsoil in the areas of high precipitation.
(3) Floods : Floods are another most important cause responsible for the soil degradation in terms of quantity as well as quality.
(4) Deforestation : Large-scale forest destruction by humans to fulfil their own needs is one of the major causes responsible for soil destruction.
(5) Overgrazing : It reduces the usefulness of the land and is one of the causes of desertification and hd erosion.
(6) Overuse of chemicals : Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides to increase the agricultural production is one of the major causes for soil pollution.
(7) Urbanization : Large-scale urbanization is the major cause for the destruction of fertile soil due to Encroachment of the fertile areas.
We can stop soil degradation by following the under-mentioned techniques :
(1) Mulching : It involves the covering of bare ground between the plants with organic matter to retain moisture in the soil.
(2) Contour Barriers : We can stop soil degradation by building barriers along contours to collect water.
(3) Rock Dam : It means the piling up of the rocks to prevent gullies and soil loss.
(4) Terrace Farming : This type of farming must be done on the steep slopes to reduce surface run off and soil erosion.
(5) Intercropping : It means to grow different crops in alternate rows to protect soil from rain-wash.
(6) Contour Ploughing : It refers to performing ploughing parallel to the contours to form natural barriers to check the soil erosion.
(7) Shelter Belts : They are mainly done in the coastal and dry regions to check the wind movement in order to prevent soil erosion.
Some important mitigation techniques suggested by the disaster management are :
(1) Hazard mapping to locate landslide prone areas. Hence, such areas can be avoided for building settlements.
(2) Construction of retention wall to stop land from slipping.
(3) Increase in the vegetation cover.
(4) The surface drainage control works are or implemented to control the movement of landslide along with rainwater and spring flows.
CITES : Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna.
It is an agreement between governments. It aims to ensure that international trade in species of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. In total, 5,000 species of animals and 28,000 species of plants are protected. Bears, dolphins, cacti, corals, orchids, etc. are some of the examples of protected species.
There are various measures for the conservation of natural vegetation and wildlife. Some of them are as follows :
(b) National parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves are set up to protect natural vegetation and wildlife.
(c) Various inlets, lakes and water bodies are put in the red category to protect marine life.
(d) Various international institutions like CITES and PETA are established to protect various animal species, birds and natural vegetation.
Even though water is a renewable resource, but its overuse and pollution make it unfit for use. We discharge untreated sewage or agricultural chemicals or industrial wastes in water bodies which pollute the water infusing nitrates, pesticides or metals in it. Thus, the availability of fresh or drinking water decreases.
The major types of vegetation are grouped as forests, grasslands, scrubs, shrubs and tundra. Temperature and moisture are the two main factors which affect the growth of natural vegetation.
Difference between National park and Zoological Park
|National park||Zoological park|
|They are less in number.||They are more in number.|
|Both animal and plant species are protected here.||Only animal species are protected here.|
|There are 166 national parks in India.||
There are 355 zoological parks in India.
Difference between evergreen forests and deciduous forests.
|Evergreen forests||Deciduous forests.|
|Number of species is more.||Number of species is less.|
They are also called rainforests.
|They are also called monsoon forests.|
Mahogany, rosewood, etc. are the major trees.
|Teak, sal, etc. are the major trees.|