- 1 Important Terms
- 2 Green Belt Movement
- 3 Protest against Water Privatisation in Bolivia
- 4 Common features of the popular mass struggle in Nepal and Bolivia
- 5 Sectional Interest Groups
- 6 Public Interest Groups
- 7 Pressure Groups
- 8 Interest Groups or Pressure Groups
- 9 Objective of Movement Groups
Green Belt Movement The Green Belt Movement was the tree plantation movement in Kenya.
Issue specific movements seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame.
Generic movements seek to achieve a broad goal in the long term.
Pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power.
Political parties directly control and share political power.
Sectional interest groups seek to promote the interest of a particular section.
Public interest groups promotes collective rather than selective good.
Green Belt Movement
(i) The Green Belt Movement was the tree plantation movement in Kenya.
(ii) 30 million trees had been planted across Kenya.
(iii) The leader of this movement was Wangari Maathai.
(iv) The government officials and politicians did not show any response towards this movement.
Protest against Water Privatisation in Bolivia
The World Bank pressurised Bolivian government to privatise municipal water supply (Privatisation of Water). The government sold the rights to an MNC which increased the price of water by four times.FEDECOR (comprised local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists), human rights and community leaders protest against water privatisation in Bolivia.
Ways of their Protest :
(i) Organized a successful four-day general strike in the city.
(ii) Influenced the decision through direct participation in competitive politics.
(iii) Created parties and formed governments.
(iv) Formed pressure groups for the protest.
The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world : The autocratic decision of King Gyanendra in February 2005 resulted in protest by the political parties and people of Nepal. Political parties having diverse ideology joined together and defied the curfew. The leaders rejected the half hearted concessions by the king, ultimately the king was compelled to concede all the three demands made by the protesters. Hence, this struggle of Nepalis known as the Second Movement for Democracy became source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.
The popular struggles are integral to the development of democracy
(a) Popular struggles are a part of working democracy.
(b) Struggles are essential to save democracy. For example, Nepal’s struggle for restoration of democracy and Bolivia’s Water War.
(c) It is only in democracy that different individual groups can express their feelings.
(d) The people do not agree with policies of the government, they can oppose it with all their might and constant popular struggle to achieve their goal.
(e) Democracy evolves through popular struggle.
Common features of the popular mass struggle in Nepal and Bolivia
(a) Both these are instances of political conflict that led to popular struggles.
(b) In both cases, the struggle involves mass mobilizations and public demonstration of mass support clinched the dispute.
(c) Both instances involved the critical role of political organization.
Indirect ways in which people can force the government to listen to their demands:
(a) By forming organization.
(b) By undertaking activities.
(c) By deciding to act together without forming organization.
SPA : Seven Party Alliance
Their demands are :
(a) Restoration of Parliament.
(b) Power to all-party government.
(c) A new Constituent Assembly.
The different organizations influence the decisions in a democracy in two ways :
(a) Direct ways : Participation in competitive politics. This is done by creating parties, contesting election and forming governments.
(b) Indirect ways : They could do so by forming an organization and undertaking activities to promote citizens interest or view point through interest groups or pressure groups.
The sectional interest groups are :
(a) Trade Unions
(b) Business associations
(c) Professional bodies–lawyers, doctors, teachers etc.
Sectional Interest Groups
The groups that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or a group of society is called sectional interest groups.
(i) They perform a meaningful role in countering the undue influence of other groups.
(ii) They create awareness about the needs and concerns of their own society.
(iii) Their principal concern is the betterment and well-being of their members not society in general.
Public Interest Groups
Public interest groups are those that promote collective rather than selective interests.
(i) It aims to help groups other than their own members.
(ii) They represent some common interest that needs to be defended.
(iii) The members of the organization may not benefit from the cause that the organization represents. e.g., a group fighting against bonded labour fights not for itself but for those who are suffering under such bondage.
Pressure groups are organizations that attempt to influence government policies. These organizations are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.
Types of Pressure Groups
(1) Social/Identity Group-have a special identity.
(a) Community based-Ram Krishna Mission.
(b) Sectional-Vishva Hindu Parishad.
(2) Associational/Identity based group–promote vocational or professional interest.
(a) Business group-FICCI
(b) Trade Union-INTUC, CITU
(c) Farmers and peasants.
(3) Institutional Group— Groups within the government e.g.,-IAS Officers’ Association, IPS Officers’ Association, Ad hoc group formed for temporary cause, e.g., to open a college or hospital.
Features of Sectional Interest Groups
(a) Interest groups seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group of society.
(b) Trade unions, business associations, professional etc. are the examples.
(c) They are sectional because they represent a section of society.
(d) Their principal concern is the betterment and well-being of their members, not society in general.
Interest Groups or Pressure Groups
Interest groups or pressure groups are organizations that attempt to influence government policies. They do not aim to directly share political power. These are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together for common objective.
Features of promotional groups are :
(i) They promote collective rather than selective good.
(ii) They aim to help groups other than their own members.
|Sectional Interest Group Public Interest Group||Public Interest Group|
|(a) Promotes interest of a particular section or group of society||Promotes the general interest of society as a whole.|
|(b) Aim of section interest group is the selective good.||Aim of public interest group is collective good.|
|(c) Example : FEDECOR, associations, etc. Represents the common people of the society.||Example: women’s group; group fighting against child labour.|
Objective of Movement Groups
(i) The main objective of movement groups is to influence politics without directly taking part in electoral competitions and achieving the desired goals.
(ii) Most of the movement groups are issue-specific movements that seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame. Others are more general or generic movements that seek to achieve a broad goal.
(iii) The struggle in Nepal was called a movement for democracy or the Narmada Bachao Andolan is an example of one such movement group.
(iv) These movements try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and their activities by carrying out information campaigns, organizing meetings, filing petitions, etc.
|Class 10 Civics – Notes & Study Material|