Plantae kingdom

Question 1 What are thallophytes?

Question 2 Give various Divisions of plantae kingdom?

Question 3 Give few characteristics of kingdom Thallophytes?

Question 4 Give few characteristics of kingdom Bryophyta?

Question 5 Give few characteristics of kingdom Pteridophyte?

Question 6 Give differences between Gymnosperm and Angiosperms?

Question 7 Give differences between Dicotyledon and monocotyledon?

Question 8 What is the criterion of classification of organism belonging to kingdom Cryptogamae?

Question 9 What is the criterion of classification of organism belonging to kingdom Phanerogams?

Plantae Kingdom
Various division or levels of classification:
1)Depend on whether the plant body has well-differentiated distinct component.
2)Whether the differentiated plant body has special tissue for the transport of water and other substance.
3)The ability to bear seeds and whether the seeds are enclosed within fruits.

Thallophytes
1)The plants body is not differentiated into stem,root and leave.
2)The plant in this group are called as algae.Most algae are aquatic but some are terrestrial ie live on land near moist places.
3)They are autotrophic.They contain green,red,brown,purple photosynthetic pigments.
4)They have cellulose cell wall around their cells.
5)For Ex:Ulthroix, Chara, spirogyra,cladophara etc.

Bryophyta
1)They are small multicellular green land plants.They are called amphibians of plant kingdom.
2)The plant body is differentiated to form stem and leaf like structures.
3)There is no specialised tissue for conduction of water and other substance.
4)For Ex:Riccia,Marchantia,Funaria,Barbula etc.

Pteridophyte

1)They are mainly found in shady or damp places.
2)the plants body is made up stem,root,leaves.
3)They have specialised tissue for the conduction of water and other substances.
4)Fertilised egg develop into embryo.
5)The plants have no flowers and do not produce seeds.
6)For Ex:Ferns,marsilea,azolla,pteris,horsetail,club mosses etc.

Cryptogamae
1)Those plants which do not produce external flowers or seeds.
2)They are considered to bear hidden reproductive organs.The common means of reproduction is by spores.They are called as flowerless plants,seedless plants.
3)For Ex:Thallophyta,Bryophyta,Pteriodophytes.

Phanerogams
1)It includes higher plants that bear flowers and seeds.
2)They have well differentiated reproductive tissue that make seeds.
3)They consist of embryo along with stored food which serve for initial growth during germination.
4)The plant is differentiated into root,stem and leaves .
5)An embryo develops from fertilised egg.

On the basis of whether seeds are naked or covered,there are 2 subdivision:
a)Gymnosperm
b)Angiosperm

Gymnosperm
1)They are simple seed plants.
2)The seeds produced by these plants are naked and not enclosed within fruit.
3)They are usually perennial(Plants that live for several years and has flowers every year),evergreen,woody.
4)For Ex:Pines,deodar,cycas etc.

Angiosperm
1)They are highly evolved plants and produce seeds that are enclosed within fruit.
2)The reproductive organs are present in flower.Since these plants have flowers,they are called flowering plants.
3)Plant embryo in seeds have structure called cotyledons.They are called seed leaves because they emerge and become green when seed germinate.They represent a bit of pre-designed plant in the seed.
They are of 2 types:
1)Dicotyledon(Dicot)d
2)Monocotyledon(Monocot)

                Dicotyledon           Monocotyledon
1)Seeds of these plants have two cotyledon. Seeds of these plants have two cotyledon.
2)They have primary roots They have fibrous roots.
3)They have strong stem. They have hollow stem.
4)They are pentamerous They are trimerous
5)For Ex:Pea,potato,sunflower,rose,neem,apple For Ex:maize,wheat,rice,onion,sugarcane

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