Electrophiles and Nucleophiles

In an organic reaction, the organic compound called the substrate reacts with a suitable attacking species called the reagent to form products. The formation of products may occur either directly from the reactants through a transition state or through the formation of one or more intermediates. Sometimes by products are also formed from intermediates. Organic…

Stereoisomerism

Isomers which have same structural formula but have different relative arrangement or atoms or groups in space are called stereoisomers and the phenomenon is called stereoisomerism. cis-trans isomerism is an example of stereoisomerism. Due to π-bonding between the two carbon atoms, the rotation around carbon-carbon double bond is prohibited and hence the geometry of the atoms…

Structural Isomerism

Isomerism Two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different chemical and physical properties are called isomers and the phenomenon is known as isomerism. It is of 2 types: 1) Structural isomerism 2) Stereoisomerism 1) Structural Isomerism : Compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures i.e. different arrangement of atoms within the…

Nomenclature For Di and Polyfunctional Aromatic compounds

1) When an aromatic compound contains two or more functional group, it is named as a derivative of the compound with the principal functional group at position 1. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid 2-Aminophenol 3-Acetylbenzonitrile 4-Iodo-2-methylphenol 3-Bromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid 2) If all the functional groups present in the benzene ring are such which are normally treated as substituent group,…

Nomenclature of Simple aromatic compounds

Aromatic compounds contain one or more isolated or fused benzene rings.An aromatic compound consist of two parts : 1)Nucleus: The most ideal aromatic compound is benzene.It is represented by a regular hexagon of six carbon atoms with three alternate single and double bonds.This is called the nucleus.The ring may be represented by any of the following…

Rules For naming Alicyclic Compounds

The names of acyclic compounds are obtained by adding the prefix cyclo to the name of the corresponding straight chain hydrocarbons. 2) If two or more alkyl group or other substituent groups are present in the ring , their positions are indicated by arabic numerals 1,2,3,4 ….while numbering the carbon atoms of the rings ,…

Rules For IUPAC Nomenclature Of Polyfunctional Compounds

Organic compounds which contain two or more functional group are called polyfunctional compounds. The IUPAC names are obtained as follows: 1) Principal functional group : When an organic compound contains two or more different functional groups, one of the functional is selected as the principal functional group while all other groups are treated as substituents….

Rules For IUPAC Nomenclature Of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

The parent chain must contain the multiple bond regardless of the fact whether it also denotes the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms or not. 2 If both double and triple bonds are present, the numbering of the parent chain should always be done from that end which is nearer to the double bond or…

Rules for IUPAC nomenclature of Branched chain alkanes

Longest chain rule: Select the longest continuos chain of carbon atoms.This is called the parent chain while all other carbon atoms which are not included in the parent chain are called branch chain or side chains or substituent.it may be noted that the longest chain may or may not be straight but it must be…

Functional Or Characteristic Group

Hydrocarbons are the parent organic compounds.All other compounds are considered to have been derived from them by replacing one or more of their hydrogen atoms by some other more reactive atom or group. R—H ——–> R—G -H and +G Each organic molecule consist of two parts i.e. R and G. The first part, i.e. R…

Nomenclature Of Different Classes Of Organic Compounds

Compounds of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. These are further divided into two classes: saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon. 1) Saturated hydrocarbons- alkanes Hydrocarbons in which all the carbon atoms are linked to one another by only single bonds are called saturated hydrocarbons. These ma be either acyclic or cyclic hydrocarbons. Saturated acyclic hydrocarbons are…

Classification Of Organic Compounds

The simplest organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. Organic compounds have been divided into two categories depending upon the nature of their carbon skeleton.These are: 1) Acyclic or open chain compounds 2) Cyclic or closed chain compounds Acyclic or open chain compounds These compounds contain open chains of carbon atoms in…

Structural Representation Of Organic Compounds

Complete and Condensed Formulae Each pair of electron making a covalent bond is represented by a dash (—). Two dashes represent a double bond and three dashes represent a triple bond. Such structural representation are called complete structural formulae or graphic or displayed formulae. These structural formulae can be further condensed by enclosing the repetitive…

Nomenclature Of Organic Compounds

Nomenclature means the system of naming of organic compounds.In case of aliphatic compounds, two system of nomenclature generally used are: 1) Trivial or common system 2) IUPAC system Trivial or common system Organic compounds were named after the source from which they were first isolated. For example : Urea got its name since the compound…

Homologous Series

All the organic compounds have been divided into different families or group depending upon their structure and chemical properties. A homologous series is defined as a family or group of structurally similar organic compounds all the members of which contain the same functional group, Show a gradation in physical and similarity in chemical properties and…

Shapes Of Simple Organic Compounds

Methane molecule A molecule of methane contains four C-C , σ bonds. Orbital picture of methane Bond length and bond angles  Ethane Molecule It contains 6 C-H σ bonds and one C-C σ bond. Orbital picture of ethane Bond lengths and bond angle in ethane Ethene molecule The carbon-carbon double bond of ethene consists of a strong carbon-carbon σ-…

Tetracovalency Of Covalent Compounds

Compounds like urea, sugars, oils, fats, dyes, proteins, vitamins which were isolated directly or indirectly from living organisms, such as animals and plants were called organic compounds. The branch of chemistry which deal with the study of these compounds was called organic chemistry. Compounds like common salt, marble , alums, vitriols which were isolated from…