Energy level diagram for Molecular orbitals

Energy level diagram for Molecular orbitals The first ten molecular orbitals may be arranged in order of energy as follow: σ(1s) <σ∗(1s) < σ(2s) <σ∗(2s) < π(2px) = π(2py) < σ(2pz) < π∗(2px) =π∗(2py) <π∗( 2pz) Relationship between electronic configuration and Molecular behaviour 1)Stability of molecules in terms of bonding and antibonding electrons Number of …

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Gas Laws

Boyle’s law The relationship between the volume and pressure of a gas was studied experimentally by Robert Boyle in 1662. He used mercury and a simple  U-tube.The pressure was increased by putting more mercury into the open limb. The volume of the air enclosed in the space above mercury in the shorter limb was noted …

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Characteristics Of Gases

Characteristics of gases 1)Gases have neither definite shape nor definite volume. They take up the shape and volume of the container. 2)They have lower density than liquids and solids.   3)They are highly compressible 4)Gases intermix completely in all proportion without any mechanical aid. 5)They exert pressure equally in all direction. Measurement of mass The …

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Shapes Of Molecules

Shape of beryllium fluoride( BeF2) molecule Atomic number of Be= 4 Electronic configuration in ground state is 1s2 2s2 Electronic configuration in excited state is 1s2 2s1 2px1 one 2s orbital and one 2p orbital undergo sp hybridisation to form two half filled sp hybrid orbitals which are oriented at an angle of 180°. They …

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Hydrogen Bonding

Whenever a molecule contains a hydrogen atom linked to a highly electronegative atom, this atom attracts the shared pair of electrons more and so this end of the molecules becomes slightly negative while the other end become slightly positive. The negative end of one molecule attracts the positive end of the other and as a …

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Molecular Orbital Theory

Molecular orbital theory Features of Molecular orbital theory 1)The atomic orbitals overlap to form new orbitals called molecular orbitals. When two atomic orbitals overlap or combine ,they lose their identity and form new orbitals. The new orbitals thus formed are called molecular orbitals. 2)Molecular orbitals are the energy states of a molecule in which the …

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Resonance

In case of certain molecules, a single Lewis structure cannot explain all the properties of the molecule. The molecule is then supposed to have many structures ,each of which can explain most of the properties of the molecules but none can explain all the properties of the molecule. The actual structure is in between of …

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Coordinate Bond

Certain atoms which have complete octets can donate their valence electrons which are not involved in bond formation ,to other atoms, which are short of electron. These donated electrons are, therefore, lone pair of electrons and are shared by both the atoms. When in the formation of a bond, the electron pair is donated by …

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Hybridisation

Hybridisation is defined as the mixing of the atomic orbitals belonging to the same atom but having slightly different energies so that a redistribution of energy takes place between them resulting in the formation of new orbitals of equal energies and identical shape. The new orbitals thus formed are known as hybrid orbitals. Important points …

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