Classification Of Organic Compounds

The simplest organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. Organic compounds have been divided into two categories depending upon the nature of their carbon skeleton.These are: 1) Acyclic or open chain compounds 2) Cyclic or closed chain compounds Acyclic or open chain compounds These compounds contain open chains of carbon atoms in…

Structural Representation Of Organic Compounds

Complete and Condensed Formulae Each pair of electron making a covalent bond is represented by a dash (—). Two dashes represent a double bond and three dashes represent a triple bond. Such structural representation are called complete structural formulae or graphic or displayed formulae. These structural formulae can be further condensed by enclosing the repetitive…

Shapes Of Simple Organic Compounds

Methane molecule A molecule of methane contains four C-C , σ bonds. Orbital picture of methane Bond length and bond angles  Ethane Molecule It contains 6 C-H σ bonds and one C-C σ bond. Orbital picture of ethane Bond lengths and bond angle in ethane Ethene molecule The carbon-carbon double bond of ethene consists of a strong carbon-carbon σ-…

Tetracovalency Of Covalent Compounds

Compounds like urea, sugars, oils, fats, dyes, proteins, vitamins which were isolated directly or indirectly from living organisms, such as animals and plants were called organic compounds. The branch of chemistry which deal with the study of these compounds was called organic chemistry. Compounds like common salt, marble , alums, vitriols which were isolated from…

Silicates

A large number of silicate minerals exist in nature. Some of the important minerals are : feldspar i.e. Albite NaAlSi3O8 , zeolites e.g. chabazite Ca2[(AlO2)4 (SiO2)8.H2O, micas [KAl2(Si3AlO10(OH)2] and asbestos [Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4]. The basic structural unit in silicate is the SiO44- terahedra. The two important man-made silicates are glass and cement. Silicates are the compounds in…

Silicones

Silicones are synthetic organosilicon polymers containing repeated R2SiO units held by Si-O-Si linkages. These compounds have general formula (R2SiO)n where R=methyl or aryl group. Preparation When methyl chloride reacts with silicon in the presence of copper as a catalyst at 570 K , various types of methyl substituted chlorosilanes of formula CH3SiCl3 , (CH3)2SiCl2, (CH3)3SiCl along…

Allotropes Of Carbon

The phenomenon of existence of an element in two or more forms which have different physical properties but identical chemical properties is called allotropy and the different forms are called allotropes. Carbon exists in 2 allotropic forms: 1) Crystalline 2) Amorphous Crystalline form of carbon: 4 allotropes of carbon having well defined crystal structure are:…

Silicon Dioxide, Silica

Silicon dioxide is known as Silica , SiO2. 95 % of the earth crust is made up of silica and silicates.It occurs in several crystallographic forms , namely , quartz , cristobalite and tridymite.These crystalline forms are interconvertible at suitable temperature. Structure Silicon dioxide is covalent , three- dimensional network solid in which each silicon…

Carbon dioxide

Preparation 1) It is prepared by burning carbon, fossil fuels and other organic compounds in excess of air or oxygen. C (s) + O2 (g) ——-> CO2 (g) C5H12 (g) + 8 O2 (g) ——–> 5 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (g) 2) In the laboratory , it is prepared by the action of dilute…

Carbon Monoxide

Preparation 1) It is formed by incomplete combustion of carbon and carbon containing fuels. 2 C + O2 ——> 2 CO This type of incomplete combustion occurs during burning of petrol or diesel in automobile and therefore CO is always present in automobile exhausts.It is also present in volcanic gases and gases coming out of…

Chemical Properties Of Carbon Family

Oxidation State 1) Oxidation state of carbon The general valence shell electronic configuration of elements of group 14 is ns2 np2 where n is the number of outermost principal shell. These elements can attain inert gas configuration either by losing or gaining 4 electrons forming M4+ or M4- ions. The C4+ ion does not exist…