Question 1 Fill in the blanks:
(a) ________ was a word used for large landowners in Tamil.
(b) The gramabhojaka often got his land cultivated by the ________
(c) Ploughmen were known as ________ in Tamil.
(d) Most grihapatis were ________ landowners.
Answer (a) Vellalar was a word used for large landowners in Tamil.
(b) The gramabhojaka often got his land cultivated by the dasa Karmakara
(c) Ploughmen were known as Ujhavar in Tamil.
(d) Most grihapatis were small landowners.
Question 2 Describe the functions of the gramabhojaka. Why do you think he was powerful?
Answer In the northern part of India, the village headman was known as the gramabhojaka.
The Functions of the Gramabhojaka.
(1) He owned a very large piece of land and got it cultivated by his slaves and hired workers.
(2) He used to collect taxes from the village, by the order of the king.
(3) He also functioned as a judge and sometimes as a policeman.
(4) The gramabhojaka also functioned as a policeman.
Question 3 List the crafts persons who would have been present in both villages and cities.
Answer The crafts persons who would have been present in both villages and cities were Goldsmiths, Blacksmiths, Weavers, Carpenters, Garland makers, Basketmakers, Statue makers, ironsmith.
Question 4 Choose the correct answer:
(a) Ring wells were used for:
2. washing clothes
(b) Punch marked coins were made of:
(c) Mathura was an important:
3. religious centre
4. forested area
(d) Shrenis were associations of:
2. crafts persons
(c) religious centre
(d) crafts persons.
Question 5 Which of the iron tools shown on page 79 would have been important for agriculture? What would the other tools have been used for?
Answer (a) Sickle was used in agriculture
(b) Axe was used for chopping wood
(c) Tongs were used in kitchen or by ironsmith
Question 6 Compare the drainage system in your locality with that of the cities mentioned in the lesson. What similarities and differences do you notice?
Answer In our locality, the drainage system includes pipes and drains. Pipes were made up of plastic, metal or ceramics. While the drainage system in this chapter was made up of rings and those rings were stacked together to make a tube like structure
Similarity : Our locality has a good drainage system. Every individual house or building also has a good drainage system. Archaeologists have also found some drains and garbage dumps in each of the city/town or site mentioned in the chapter and in an individual house.
Differences : Nowadays, everything (project or work) is well- maintained and made up of good raw materials. But in early cities mud bricks and thatch had been used which might not have been survived long. We use separator and filters with modem technology which was not there earlier.
Question 7 If you have seen crafts persons at work, describe in a short paragraph what they do. (Hint: how do they get the raw materials, what kind of equipment do they use, how do they work, what happens to the finished product).
Answer Different crafts persons work in villages and cities. For example, blacksmiths, goldsmiths, carpenters, potters, weavers, etc.
Craftsmen get the raw material from villages, nearby cities, and even import from far regions of India as well as from other countries. They use different types of equipment, as required for their crafts.
For example, a potter uses potter’s wheel, spade, a stick, a spin-thread, a bright-fire burning or furnace, heating, and beating metal rods. A blacksmith uses iron and other metals, a furnace, a hammer, a big-iron rod, etc. A weaver uses a spinning wheel, cotton, needle, scissors, dye-colors, dying-vessels, etc. A carpenter uses wood, iron, a hand-ax, borer, iron-blade, nails.
Most of the craftsmen worked at their own cottage or home. Other family members used to help him. Many craftspersons formed associations known as Shrenis. Shrenis of crafts persons provided training, procured raw material, and distributed the finished product.
After keeping a small part by the craftspersons for their own or their family’s use, they took the remaining part of production (or surplus production) to local markets or neighbour-merchants. These merchants or traders used to take the products to those parts of the country or to other countries where they were demanded by the people or foreign traders or nationals.
Question 8 List the functions performed by men and women who live in your city or village. In what ways are these similar to those performed by people who lived in Mathura? In what ways are they different?
Answer In our city (or in our village) different types of functions such as domestic, officials, related with government posts or departments are performed by men and women as their daily routine.
Mathura. It was (and even today) an important religious city about 2500 years ago. It was also important because this city was located at the two main trade and travel routes. The city is known for several temples and shrines. Farmers and herders from adjoining areas provided food items etc. to the citizens who lived in the city.
Similar. In our city or village, people work as traders or merchants or farmers, as the men of the old city of Mathura performed. The women did a lot of work at home as the domestic wives or ladies perform in modem cities and villages.
Differences. People in Mathura did work for the kings and their family-members but now in cities or villages people do work to meet their daily needs or expenses.