Question 1. Describe the ways in which the Buddha tried to spread his message to the people.
Answer The Buddha tried to spread his message to the people in the following ways :
(a) He taught the people in Prakrit, which was the language of the ordinary people so that everybody could understand his message without any difficulty.
(b) He gave the message to think proactively instead of following him blindly.
(c)He moved from place to place to give his message to all people- ordinary as well as people from other classes of society.
Question 2 Write whether true or false:
(a) The Buddha encouraged animal sacrifices.
(b) Sarnath is important because it was the place where the Buddha taught for the first time.
(c) The Buddha taught that karma has no effect on our lives.
(d) The Buddha attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya.
(e) Upanishadic thinkers believed that the atman and brahman were ultimately one.
Answer (a) The Buddha encouraged animal sacrifices – False
(b) Sarnath is important because it was the place where the Buddha taught for the first time –True
(c) The Buddha taught that karma has no effect on our lives – False
(d) The Buddha attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya – True
(e) Upanishadic thinkers believed that the atman and brahman were ultimately one – True
Question 3 What were the questions that Upanishadic thinkers wanted to answer?
Answer Upanishadic thinkers wanted to know about life after death. Some wanted to know why sacrifices should be performed. They felt there had to be something permanent in the universe that lasted even after death. Their ideas are recorded in the Upanishads.
Question 4 What were the main teachings of the Mahavira?
Answer The main teachings of the Mahavira are:
(a) He taught a simple doctrine, men and women who wished to know the truth must leave their homes.
(b) They must follow rules of ahimsa, which means not hurting or killing living beings, very strictly.
(c) He taught to lead a simple and pure life.
Question 5 Why do you think Anagha’s mother wanted her to know the story of the Buddha?
Answer Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. Anagha’s mother wanted her to know the story of the Buddha so that he could take lessons from the life of Buddha and we all know that he was a great thinker and his teaching are very important for our lives.
Question 6 Do you think it would have been easy for slaves to join the sangha? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer Yes, I think it would have been easy for slaves to join the sangha. Because Buddha favoured and stressed equality of human beings. Moreover, some slaves were very good at their work and performed many useful services for the people of sanghas.
Question 7 Make a list of at least five ideas and questions mentioned in this lesson. Choose three from the list and discuss why you think they are important even today.
(1) Life is full of suffering and unhappiness. It is due to our unfulfilled desires. This is true today since most people are not satisfied with what they have. They resort to unfair means out of greed and end up in suffering and trouble.
(2) Our actions (‘Karma’) affect us in our current life as well as next life.
(3) We should not hurt or kill any living being, according to Mahavira. This is important because every living being has a desire to live.
(4) Thinkers wanted to know about life after death and they wanted to know why sacrifices should be performed. Sacrifices are not justified since living being should be killed.
5) Upanishadic thinkers also felt that something was permanent in the universe and it lasted even after death.
Question 8 Find out more about men and women who renounce the world today. Where do they live, what kinds of clothes do they wear, what do they eat? Why do they renounce the world?
Answer Religious saints, monks, nuns, philosophers, jain-munnies (rien as well as women), men and women who have joined the Buddha- Sangha renounce the world even today.
They live in ashrams, vihars, sanghas, dargahas or lonely places of meditation or worship. Some of them even live in remote forests or near some permanent rivers or on the peak of mountains. They meditate for the most of the time. They wear very simple clothes or clothes of particular colour and design.
Generally they eat vegetarian food, simple rice or chapatis along with milk, fruit, vegetables and pulses. They renounce the world because they feel that only those who leave their homes can gain true knowledge.