Question 1. What changes can you make in your habits to become more environment friendly?
Answer 1 (i) By minimising the water usage and avoiding its wastage.
(ii) Saving power by switching off unnecessary lights and fans.
(iii) Avoiding wastage of food by consuming it rationally as per our needs.
(iv) Walking down or use bi-cycle for going to nearby market instead of using vehicle.
(v) By segregating wastes into recyclable and non-recyclable.
(vi) Reuse carry bags, packing materials, plastic containers and other reusable material.
Question 2. What would be the advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims?
Answer 2 The advantage of exploiting resources with short term aim is to meet the immediate basic human needs.
Question 3. How would these advantages differ from the advantages of using a long term perspective in managing our resources?
Answer 3 Short term exploitation of natural resources fulfils the current demand. It is beneficial for the present generation only, whereas, management of resources with long term perspective is aimed to fulfil the needs of future generations also. Long term use of resources can be achieved through its sustainable use.
Question 4. Why do you think that there should be equitable distribution of resources? What forces would be working against an equitable distribution of our resources?
Answer 4 (i) Equitable distribution of resources will ensure benefits to all the sections of the society rich as well as poor. This is necessary for growth and development of country. Natural resources of the Earth must be distributed among the people uniformly so that each and every one gets his share of the resource.
(ii) Human greed, corruption, and the lobby of the rich and powerful are the forces working against an equitable distribution of resources.
Question 1. Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?
Answer 1 Wildlife and forests should be conserved for the following reasons:
(i) To prevent loss of ecological stability.
(ii) To obtain medicine, wood, fruits and other similar products in a sustainable manner.
(iii) To promote social and economic growth.
Question 2. Suggest some approaches towards the conservation of forests.
Answer 2 Forests can be conserved by:
(i) Preventing the process of deforestation.
(ii) Preventing cattle ranching in the forest.
(iii) Promoting afforestation.
(vi) Preventing the soil erosion.
Question 1. Find out about the traditional systems of water harvesting/ management in your region.
Answer 1 The traditional systems of water harvesting/ management in different regions are different. The traditional system of water harvesting in our region includes construction of ponds, pits, lakes and other water reservoirs where rainwater is stored to use it during leaning season.
Question 2. Compare the above system with the probable systems in hilly/ mountainous areas or plains or plateau regions.
Answer 2 In mountainous areas instead of traditional water harvesting system, series of check dams are constructed across the seasonally flooded gullies. The water from these check dams is diverted into small canals to use it for irrigation and domestic purposes. In this system, excess of water from check dams flows to the next and hence there is less chance of it becoming polluted like that of pond water which is stagnant.
Question 3. Find out the source of water in your region/locality. Is water from this source available to all people living in that area?
Answer 3 In our locality water is available through pipe line supply by municipal corporation to the houses.
Water from the source is available to all people living in that area.
Question 1. What changes would you suggest in your home in order to be environment-friendly?
Answer 1 Changes that can be undertaken at home in order to be environment-friendly are as follows:
(1) To ensure that there is no wastage of water and repair of all the leaky taps will be done.
(2) Fluorescent tubes can be used (in place of bulbs) which consume less electricity.
(3) Segregate waste into renewable and non-renewable .
(4) Reuse newspaper and plastic items.
Question 2. Can you suggest some changes in your school which would make it environment friendly?
Answer 2 (i) Grow trees along the boundary wall.
(ii) Grow shrubs and small plants on the sides of internal road and around the playground.
(iii) Harvest water from rooftop to be utilised for watering the plants.
(iv) Arrange awareness programmes among students through poster exhibition and seminars.
(v) Avoid wastage of water and ensure recycling of used paper for handicraft purposes.
Question 3. We saw in this chapter that there are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among these should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so?
Answer 3 (1) The people who lives in or around forests and are dependent on forest products for their livelihood.
(2) The forest department that owns the land and controls the forest resources and their produce.The wildlife and nature enthusiasts who want to conserve nature in its original form as far as possible.
(3) The local people who live in or around the forests must have more say in deciding the management of forest produce. They take the materials only up to their needs from the forest resources and try to replenish these resources.
Question 4. How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of (a) forests and wildlife, (b) water resources and (c) coal and petroleum?
Answer 4 (a) Forests and Wildlife:
1. Take part in community activities with focus on conserving forests and wildlife.
2. As a tourist follow all principles of conservation.
3. Help organisations engaged in conservation of forests and wildlife.
(b) Water Resources
1. Save water in domestic use.
2. Install a system for rainwater harvesting and ground water recharge.
(c) Coal and Petroleum
1. Save electricity whenever required.
2. Install electric gadgets that use less power.
Question 5. What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?
(i) Save electricity
(ii) Do not waste food
(iii) Save water.
(iv) Use cooking gas instead of wood for cooking.
Question 6. List five things you have done over the last one week to —
(a) conserve our natural resources.
(b) increase the pressure on our natural resources.
Answer 6 (a) Things done to conserve natural resources are:
1. use energy efficient electrical appliances.
2. use only as much of electricity as was required.
3. kept the water tap closed while brushing the teeth.
4. convinced mother to cook the food in a solar cooker.
5. used public transport for school instead of parent’s car.
(b) Five things done to increase the pressure on natural resources:
1. went to school on a bike instead of cycle.
2. forgot to switch off fan while going out.
3. wastage of food.
4. used more paper than required for printing on computer.
5. wastage of water resource.
Question 7. On the basis of the issues raised in this chapter, what changes would you incorporate in your lifestyle in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources?
Answer 7 One should incorporate the following changes in lifestyle in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources :
1) Stop cutting trees and practice plantation of trees.
2) Stop using plastic and polythene bags for carrying goods.
3) Throw biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste into separate bins.
4) Waste minimum about of water.
5)Practice rain water harvesting.
6) Avoid using vehicles for short distances.
7) Switch off electrical appliances when not in use.