Question 1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?
(a) Shifting Agriculture
(b) Plantation Agriculture
(d) Intensive Agriculture
(ii) Which one of the following is a rabi crop?
(iii) Which one of the following is a leguminous crop?
(iv) Which one of the following is announced by the government in support of a crop?
(a) Maximum support price
(b) Minimum support price
(c) Moderate support price
(d) Influential support price
(i) – (b)
(ii) – (b)
(iii) – (a)
(iv) – (b)
Question 2. Answer the following questions in 30 words:
(i) Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.
(ii) Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.
(iii) Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
(iv) The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?
Answer 2 (i) Tea is an important beverage crop. Geographical conditions required for its growth:
(a) The tea plant grows well in tropical and subtropical climates.
(b) It needs deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.
(c) Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year.
(d) Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of tender leaves.
(ii) Rice is the staple food crop of a majority of the people in India. It is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions. Development of dense network of canal irrigation and tubewells have made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
(iii) The institutional reforms introduced by the government for the benefit of the farmers are:
(a) Collective farming was introduced. In this method fields of several farmers are joined together and members-owners engage jointly in farming activities.
(b) Land holdings were consolidated. Fragmented lands due to inheritance were again consolidated into single unit to increase its economic viability.
(c) Zamindari system was abolished. The abolition of Zamindari system was a boon for the farmers who were relieved from the exploitation of the landlords. Now the farmers themselves were the owners of their land. They were no more bonded labourers.
(d) In the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated which included both institutional and technical reforms. Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease. Establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at low rates of interest. Kissan Credit Card (KCC) was introduced for easy purchase of inputs. Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some other schemes introduced for the benefit of the farmers. Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television. The minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.
(iv) If land under cultivation is reduced day by day, we will be facing these consequences:
(a) Less land under cultivation would directly affect the quality of food crops. The quantity of food crops would decrease which would cause food insecurity in the country.
(b) If land under cultivation is less, farmers will use more and more chemical fertilisers and biotechnology in order to get maximum yield. This will degrade the quality of the land.
Question 3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.
(ii) Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.
Answer 3 (i) Considering the importance of agriculture in India, the Government of India made concerted efforts to modernise agriculture.
(a) Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).
(b) Establishment of agricultural universities.
(c) Establishment of veterinary services and animal breeding centres.
(d) Development of horticulture.
(e) Research and development were done in the field of meteorology and weather forecast.
(f) The rural infrastructure was improved.
(g) In 1960s and 1970s two most important reforms were introduced. The Green Revolution and related technologies were introduced such as use of HYV of seed, fertilisers, modern machinery and inputs. The White Revolution (Operation Flood) was introduced to increase milk production.
(h) Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease. Establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest. Kissan Credit Card (KCC) was introduced for easy purchase of inputs.
(i) Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some other schemes introduced for the benefit of the farmers.
(j) The minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.
(ii) Rice is the staple food crop of a majority of the people in India. Our country is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China. It is a kharif crop. It requires high temperature (above 25°C). It requires high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation. Rice is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions. Development of dense network of canal irrigation and tubewells have made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
Question 1. Group discussion on the necessity of literacy among farmers.
Answer 1 In a country like India, educating and training farmers is very essential. The farmers of India need proper guidance about the quality of their land and what should be grown on it. There is a need of giving proper guidance to the farmers about using fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides. Most of the farmers still cultivate their land in the old way that not only takes much more time but also much more effort. This is the reason why the farmers of India are still so poor. It is also important to provide them with modern technologies to cultivate their land.
Once educated they will get to know about many important things which otherwise they were unaware of, like
— How to run the equipments and machines to improve agricultural production. — Right type of fertilisers, pesticides, seeds, climate etc required for the growth of particular type of crop.
— Are the soil conditions right, or does it require a boost in some nutrient and how much?
— They will also get to know about how to deal with bankers and loans and grants and subsidies if there is any.
Question 2 On an outline map of India show wheat-producing areas.
Solve the puzzle by following your search horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answers.
(i) The two staple food crops of India.
(ii) This is the summer cropping season of India.
(iii) Pulses like arhar, moong, gram, urad contain ……….
(iv) It is a coarse grain.
(v) The two important beverages in India are ……….
(vi) One of the four major fibres grown on black soils.
(i) Wheat and rice
(ii) Kahrif (iii) Protein
(v) Tea and coffee