Modals or modal verbs or modal auxiliary verbs or modal auxiliaries are special verbs that behave irregularly in English.
They give additional information about the function of the main verb that follows it. They never change their form. You can’t add “s”, “ed”, “ing”..
Modal verbs are used to express certain hypothetical conditions, such as advice, capability, requests, permission, ability, obligation, prohibition, possibility, probability, willingness etc.
Examples of Modals are: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must , ought to , need , be to , have to , used to etc.
(1) Can Modal
It is used to express permission, possibility, ability, capacity, polite request, doubt, offer.
1) Can I go to the washroom ?
2) Can I use your phone, please?
3) Can I go for shopping today ?
4) Can we go for river Rafting ?
5) Can I eat Pizza today ?
1) Anyone can be the culprit.
2) Smoking can cause cancer.
3) You can catch that train at 9:00 A.M..
4) He can guess why she is happy.
5) There can be a fire in the factory.
1) You can achieve your goal by regular practice.
2) Tom can write in many languages.
3) I can play guitar very well.
4) We can perform very well in the competition.
5) She can bake very delicious cakes.
1) Can you please help me in solving this question.
2) Can you wait a moment, please?
3) Can I have your phone number?
4) Can you please get me a glass of water?
5)Can you please switch off the light ?
1) Can you eat an entire pizza?
2) It can be very cold here in winter.
3) Can she participate in the quiz today ?
4) Can he drive the car for such a long distance ?
5) Can you secure will in English this time?
1) Can I get some water for you ?
2) I can lend you my car till tomorrow.
3) Can I help you in finishing this project ?
4) Can I do something for you ?
5) If you like , I can carry vegetable bags for you.
1) Can we visit Zoo at the weekend?
2) If you want , we can go for vacations next week.
3) You can apply ointment on your bruises.
4) In order to reach early , you can book a taxi.
5) You can come to my house whenever you are free.
(2) Could Modal
Could is a modal verb used to express possibility, past ability, to make suggestions and requests.
|Ability in the past||1) I could smell something burning.
2) I could play a piano when i was a child.
3) He could play football very well when he was a child.
4)Neha could drive perfectly when she was 16 yrs old.
5) I could speak four language when I was 10 yrs old.
|Polite request||1) Could you lend me some money?
2) Could you please tell me where the rest room?
3) Could you please make dinner tonight as I am not feeling well?
4) Could you please repeat the question?
5) Could you open the door please?
|Permission||1) Could I please use your phone?
2) Could I please go to the Park?
3) Could I ask few questions related to Maths?
4) Could I borrow your notes for two days?
5) Could I speak to you for few minutes.
|Possibility||1) Extreme heat could cause shortage of water in some areas.
2) He could go to jail for stealing the necklace.
3) We could write a letter to the Principal.
4) A lot of accidents could be prevented.
5) You could have called her.
|Suggestion||1) You could see a movie or go out to dinner.
2) If you want, we could go for a movie tonight.
3) I could help you with homework.
4) They could go to their house if they are free.
5) If you had come with me , we could have had fun.
(3) May Modal
The modal verb “may” is used in English grammar to express possibility, permission, or a request for permission. When used to express possibility, “may” is used to indicate a uncertain chance that something will happen in the future.
|Possibility||1) She may be at the office.
2) There may be other reason that she knows.
3)This food may produce a rancid smell.
4) I may read a book today.
5) He may be working for us.
|Permission||1) May I come into the class room ?
2) May I go there for sometime ?
3) May I speak to Miss Tina , Please ?
4) You may sit at the front seat of car ?
5) You may have another pizza piece if you want?
|Request||1) May I have the bill, please ?
2) May I sit at the next seat ?
3) May I help you in doing this work ?
4) May I have some water , please ?
5) May I use your phone ?
|Wish||1) May you have a happy and safe journey.
2) May you both have a Happy Married life.
3)May you blessed with a little one.
4)We’ve had great success this year; may we continue to do so for years to come.
5)May you both have a long, happy life together.
(4) Might Modal
Might is a modal verb commonly used to express possibility , make suggestion or request. It is also often used in conditional sentences. We use might when we are not sure about something in the present or future.
|Possibility||1) She might go for a party today.
2) Meera might go for the movie tomorrow.
3) Your phone might be in the drawing room.
4) Rohan might like playing cricket.
5) It might get late so take your lunch.
|Suggestion||1) You might try this new recipe.
2) You might want to take a cup of coffee.
3) You might try these new question bank.
4)You might have caught a taxi on time.
5) If it is an infection , you might need an antibiotic.
|Condition||1) If I didn’t have to work, I might go with you.
2) If I participate in the competition , I might win.
3) If you work hard ,you might secure well.
4) If I don’t have work , I might go for an outing.
5)They might come to school , if they are well.
|Request||1) Might I borrow your book.
2)Might I ask who has been invited to the party ?
3) He asked ,if he might borrow the crockery ?
4) Might I take your phone for a call?
5) Might I have a coffee ?
(5) Shall Modal
Shall is a modal verb used to indicate future action. It is most commonly used in sentences with “I” or “we,” and is often found in suggestions, promise, offer, confirmation, instruction.
|Suggestion||1) Shall we begin the debate ?
2) Shall I get tickets for the concert?
3) Shall I call you after the classes ?
4) Shall we book a cab for home?
5) Shall I close the window as it is windy outside?
|Promise||1) I shall be there at sharp 7:00 a.m.
2) I shall take care of my grandmother.
3) Don’t worry , I shall make all the arrangements.
4) We shall remember this day forever.
5) I shall get you a new dress for your birthday.
|Offer||1) Shall I carry that heavy bag for you.
2) Shall I make dinner tonight for everyone ?
3) Shall I open the bottle ?
4) Shall I wait for you ?
5) Shall I make the marriage arrangements for you?
|Confirmation||1) I shall meet you at the Cafe after office.
2) We shall know the results of the exam next week.
3) Geetika shall turn 5 next week .
4) We shall be here at eight tomorrow.
5) Next year , I shall buy a new car.
|Instruction||1) What shall I do with your parcel , when it arrives ?
2) Candidates shall remain in their seats until all the papers have been collected.
3) He is determined that you shall succeed.
4) You shall not lie to your elders.
5) Students shall not enter here.
(6) Should Modal
Should is used to give advice , to make recommendations , to express obligation and expectation.
|Advice|| 1) You should try to focus more on your speaking skills.
2) You shouldn’t smoke as it is harmful for health.
3) You should start working hard for the exams.
4) You should have done more practice before the event.
5) You should try to lose weight to remain healthy.
|Obligation||1) We should report the incident.
2)I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM.
3) You should be wearing your seat belt while driving.
4)He should have been more careful.
5) We should return the book before the Library closes.
|Probability/ Expectation||1) Mehak should be at home now , so you can call her .
2) Sarah should be he here in an hour’s time.
3) The weather should get better soon.
4) By now, they should already be in an interview.
5) This shouldn’t be John’s mark sheet.
(7) Will Modal
Will is a modal verb used with promises , voluntary actions , to make predictions about the future. It is used to form future tenses, to express willingness or ability, to make requests or offers, to complete conditional sentences, or to issue commands.
|Request||1) Will you take the parcel for me , please ?
2) Will you help me with my Chemistry assignment ?
3) Will you water the plants while i am away.
4) Will you call when you get free ?
5)Will you land me some money ?
|Order||1) Will you stop asking such silly question !
2)Will you stop making that irritating noise !
3) You will do as you are told!
4) Will you be quiet !
|Willing||1) I will wash my plates after finishing my meal.
2) I will help you in arranging these files.
3) I will accept your offer.
4) We will get up early morning and then go to beach.
5) I will make arrangements for you.
|Future||1) We will go for a movie tomorrow.
2) They will visit their grandmother’s house next week.
3) How long will you be staying In Goa?
4) By next year all the deals will be finalised.
5) I will be a Senior citizen in March.
|Action||1) I will catch the bus to reach the work place.
2) I will not be coming for the dinner.
3) John will play Football match next Sunday.
4) I will take these books with me.
5) None of your tricks will work on me.
|Question||1) Will we have a test in Maths class?
2) Will there be holiday tomorrow?
3) Will she study harder for the next exam?
4) Will they join us for party ?
5) Will she the answer ?
(8) Would Modal
Would modal is used talk about the past , future in the past , express the conditional mood, express desire, polite requests and questions, opinion or hope, wish and regret.
|Offer||1) Would you like to sit here ?
2) Would you like to have a cup of coffee ?
3) I would help you in solving Maths problems.
4) Would you have lunch with me on Sunday ?
5) They would go to a picnic if you want .
|Request||1)Would you give me the water , please ?
2) Would you help me in carrying these bags?
3) Would you like to know the answer?
4) Would you open the door, please?
5) Would you bring me some flowers for decoration ?
|Refusal||1) She would not let Megha to use her Phone.
2) He would not lend the money to me .
3) I wouldn’t eat that if you were there.
4) I wouldn’t love to stay here.
5) I wouldn’t share the answers with you.
|Conditional||1) If she won the prize , she would give us a treat.
2) If she get the money , she would pay the bills.
3)If I had not stayed with them tonight , they would be offended.
4) If he lost his job he would have no money.
5) If I had won the lottery I would purchase a new house.
|Future in the past||1) He promised he would meet me.
2) He said he would see him on Saturday.
3) I thought it would rain so I brought my umbrella.
4) She said that she would buy some vegetables.
5) She said she would bring new dresses tomorrow.
(9) Must Modal
It is used to express obligation, give orders , give advice , speculate about the truth of something (Deduction) , recommendation , prohibition.
|Obligation||1) You must wear a mask when you are in public place.
2) You must tie your hair neatly while preparing food.
3) All the members must bring their files tomorrow.
4) Students must remain seated until the lecture get over.
5) You must wear a seat belt while driving.
|Advice||1) You must read this book , it is so interesting.
2) You must try butter scotch cake , its so yummy.
3) You must eat all the vegetables as they are good for health.
4) She must go home as she is not feeling well.
5) You must not eat so much junk food.
|Orders||1) You must go to the sleep now.
2) You must not smoke here.
3) You must complete this work by Friday.
4) You must return her notes now.
5) You must come to class on time.
|Deduction||1) There must be some mistake in the question paper.
2)You must be tired as It’s two in the night and you are still working.
3) The ground was wet this morning. It must have rained last night.
4) It must have been difficult for her to pass this exam.
5) He must have tried hard to get a new job.
|Recommendation||1) We must get together for party soon.
2) You must start reading some books in free time.
3) You must visit a good physician as early as possible.
4) you must take care of the elder people.
5) We must conserve non-renewable resources of energy.
|Prohibition||1) You must not make noise in the Library.
2) You must not cross when the traffic is moving.
3) You must not tell John about Peter’s plan.
4) Students must not talk while writing an exam.
5) You must not talk on phone while driving.
(10) Ought To Modal
Ought to is a semi-modal verb because it is in some ways like a modal verb and in some ways like a main verb. It is only used with reference to the present and the future. Ought to is rarely used in questions and negatives.
1) We ought to leave now.
2) You ought to practice more.
3) I ought to call my cousin.
4) We ought to do more exercise.
5) You ought to pay him back shortly.
6) I ought to be fine tomorrow.
7) You ought to ask him for advice.
8) They ought not to have been driving so fast.
9) He ought to work out more.
10) I ought to go there , but i won’t.
11) You ought to tell the truth.
12) You ought to call your mother more often.
13) Rita ought to go by herself.
14) You ought to be with him.
15) Mohan ought to revise her lessons before exam.
16) Children ought to be able to read the whole passage.
17) The journey ought to take 6 hours.
18) Ought she to call the police?
19) Ought you to be at school?
20) Ought I to report it to someone in authority?
21) I really ought to buy a new car.
22) I am the one who ought to apologize.
23) We oughtn’t to have let that happen.
24) It’s a game that the blue team ought to win.
25) You ought to set an example for others.