A sentence has two parts – Subject and Predicate or we can say that a sentence is made up of a clause.
A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a finite verb. It conveys information about what that subject is doing, rather than simply being a random grouping of words. A sentence can have just one clause or it can have multiple clauses. A clause can function as its own sentence.
Examples of Clauses
1) Mohan purchased a new house. (one clause)
2) When it rained they didn’t go out. (two clauses)
3) I can not remember what happened in the meeting. (two clauses)
4) I woke up early this morning. (one clause)
5) I drink milk everyday. (one clause)
6) All stood up when the teacher came to the class. (two clauses)
7) I read the whole book yesterday . (one clause)
8) I want to buy a laptop, but I don’t have enough money. ( two clauses)
9) Please take off your shoes. (one clause)
10) She went to London and purchased a branded purse. (two clauses)
11) My parents room is upstairs. (one clause)
12) He went to the market but it started raining (two clauses)
13) Neha like tea but Shreya likes Coffee. (two clauses)
14) His father is an architect. (one clause)
15) Meeta works hard, so she will pass. (two clauses)
16) I have many friends. (one clause)
17) Though he is poor, yet he is honest. (two clauses)
18) He stayed at home because he is unwell. (two clauses)
19) There are twenty students in the class. ( one clause)
20) Add some sugar to milk. (one clause)
21) Today was a very bad day. (one clause)
22) Heena missed the bus so she walked to school. (two clauses)
23) His parents are not well educated. (one clause)
24) Julie finished the Pizza because she was hungry.(two clauses)
25) They had enough plates. (one clause)
26) Today the sky is very clear. (one clause)
27) I didn’t eat ice-cream because my sister loves to eat it. (two clauses)
28) The sweets that he brought were delicious. (one clause)
29) There are few pictures in this book. (one clause)
30) I could not study as the lights went out. ( two clauses)
Types of Clause
The two different types of clauses in English are :
(1) Independent clause / Principal clause
It has a subject as well as a verb, and it can also be used as a sentence. These cannot be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs since they act as sentences.
Independent clause = Subject + Verb
1) The lion roar loudly in the cage.
2) She was punished today.
3) Mohan is very intelligent.
4) She loves to watch cricket.
5) This is an important chapter.
6) Bring your notebook here.
7) Wash your hands properly.
8) John purchased a new phone.
9) Today is my sister’s birthday.
10) I know how to drive a car.
11) I need two tickets.
12) She won the competition.
13) They are fighting very badly.
14) The Sun rises in the East.
15) I love to read Novels.
16) The birds are chirping outside the window.
17) Jelly fishes has umbrella like body.
18) She is a very good singer.
19) I am going to Goa tomorrow.
20) My mother is ill.
(2) Dependent clause / Subordinate clause
It needs an independent clause for providing the complete meaning to the sentence. The dependent clause is made of subject, verb, and predicate but it doesn’t act as the sentence as they need support from the independent clause.
A dependent clause is joined to an independent clause to form a complex sentence.
Dependent clause = Subject + verb + Subordinator
1) She cried because she failed in the exam.
2) I purchase chips whenever i go the market.
3) After we finished our work, we watched a movie.
4) Sara’s mother is out of station so she can’t come to the party.
5) She was not there in the meeting because some tragedy happened in his family.
6) I am going to the market even it is windy outside.
7) I could not study as my notebook was left in the school.
8) If you are not comfortable here, please feel free to take help from someone.
9) Have some food in case you are hungry.
10) Raman likes to listen music only when he is free.
11) I know the man who can easily renovate your house.
12) He bought a Branded watch which was too expensive.
13) If you don’t exercise regularly, you will become unhealthy.
14) She is a very talented singer but practices less these days.
15) I will go the mall if you will come with me.
16) When the dog ran across the street he was almost hit by a car.
17) She is beautiful but she is very arrogant.
18) I don’t like Pizza nor do I like Pasta.
19) You will fail if you don’t study properly.
20) Everybody was present only Nisha was absent.
These can be used as Noun, Adverb, and Adjective as well.
a) Noun clause : If a dependent clause acts as a noun then it is known as a noun clause. These can act as subject or verb of the object.
Noun clauses typically have a verb and a subject, but they cannot express a complete thought in a sentence; hence they are known as dependent clause.
These often start with “how,” “that,” WH-words (What, Who, Where, When, Why, Which, Whose and Whom), if, whether etc.
1) Who left this food in the plate.
2) What Sheena did surprised her family.
3) She didn’t know why the phone wasn’t working.
4) I don’t understand what you’re talking about.
5) I know where the book is .
6) You haven’t told me whose pen is this.
7) She knows that i am a teacher.
8) I saw how the accident happened.
9) I have a surprise for whoever wins the competition.
10) Do you know what time it is?
b) Adverb clause : Adverb clauses are used to describe or provide more information about the verb, adjective. A subordinate clause that functions as an adverb within a main clause is called as an Adverb clause.
Adverb clauses contain subordinating conjunctions that prevent them from containing complete thoughts and becoming full sentences.
One can identify an adverb clause by asking when, where, how, why and how often. An adverb clause begins with a subordinating conjunctions like ‘after’, ‘whether’, ‘if’, ‘because’, ‘although’, ‘even though’.
1) In case you don’t like it, let me know.
2) I will meet you at the home after the class gets over.
3) He lost his temper after listening to an argument.
4) The dogs started chasing my car once i step out of the house.
5) Meera is not going as it is raining outside.
6) He failed the test though he prepared well.
7) My sister comes with me wherever i go to play.
8) When the Sun rises, we will start our journey.
9) John went home after he finished his meeting.
10) I will drink tea after i eat these fritters.
|Place||Where, anywhere, everywhere, where ever|
|Time||Before, after, once, since ,until, as soon as, when, while|
|Reason||as, because, since|
|Confession||although, though, even though|
|Purpose||so that, in order that|
|Manner||as if, just as|
|Result||so that, such that|
|Condition||if, even if, only if, unless, in case|
c) Adjective clause : An adjective clause is a type of dependent clause that works to describe a noun or pronoun in a sentence. It is a dependent clause that function as an adjective.
It tells which one or what kind.
1) The boy whom you saw at the store explained the incident.
2) The cookies that she bought was luscious.
3) The game which was played today, ended in a tie.
4) The girl who stood first in the class was my cousin.
5) Nobody saw the boy who came late in the class.
6) I don’t what to do with the books that i have already read.
7) My friend, who wears glasses, is very arrogant.
8) There is the mountain that we are going to climb.
9) The dry fruits that you bought last year have rotted.
10) The necklace that I like is for sale.
The dependent clauses are conditional clauses and relative clauses.
The conditional clause helps in describing something which is possible or probable.
It begins with either “unless” or “if”. The conditional clause can come before or after the main clause.
1) We will be late if we don’t leave now.
2) If you heat butter, it will melt.
3) If you study, you will secure good marks.
4) If you eat too much, you will become unhealthy.
5) If i had money, I will buy a car.
6) If you run fast, you will win the race.
7) If you don’t brush your teeth regularly, they will decay.
8) If you mix red and white colour, you will get an orange colour.
9) They will not finish their homework unless they start now.
10) If you rest, you will feel better.
A relative clause is one kind of dependent clause. It has a subject and verb, but can’t stand alone as a sentence. We use relative clauses to make clear which person or thing we are talking about.
The relative clause is associated with the main clause by some words like “that”, “which”, “whose”, “whom”, “where”, or “when”.
1) That’s the man who purchased a new car.
2) The dress which Mary was wearing is very beautiful.
3) I will never forget the day when i got highest marks in my 12th grade.
4) The mother whose child is sick is very worried.
5) The book we read yesterday was very interesting.
6) The boy who was sitting in the front row is very intelligent.
7) My mother who is wearing red dress is a good cook.
8) Do you know the delivery boy who delivered pizza today ?
9) I want to talk to the students who got scholar badges.
10) The bananas which I bought on Monday were rotten.
The relative clause can be further classified into restrictive clause and non-restrictive clause.
Restrictive clause or essential clause
A restrictive clause defines the meaning of a noun or noun phrase and provides necessary information about the noun in the sentence.
It’s not separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.
1) The student who at the back bench is very naughty.
2) The parcel i requested arrived on time.
3) The man who lives next door purchased a new house.
4) I don’t know the person who cheated us.
5) He went to the school that my sister went too.
6) Children who eat vegetables are likely to be healthy.
7) The boy who spoke so well won the prize.
8) The players who are wearing the red uniforms are winning the game.
9) Let’s find the movie that you recommended yesterday.
10) The employees who work there are very punctual.
Non-Restrictive clauses or non-essential clause
A nonrestrictive clause adds additional information to a sentence. It uses commas to show the additional information.
It is usually a proper noun or a common noun that refers to a unique person, thing, or event.
1) I want to thank my mother, Rita Mehta, for this wonderful surprise.
2) The new dish, which i made yesterday, was awesome.
3) Jenny, who is my colleague, is very slow in her work.
4) Mr. Smith, who worked in a Multinational company, is very rich and humble.
5) Meeta and Mohan, who stood first in the class, are very helpful.
6) I had to fix my phone , which I bought less than a year ago.
7) Kiya, who just graduated from high school, has a melodious voice.
8) The women, who wearing a pink dress, left for airport.
9) Those girls, who have been friends for years, are all going to the same college.
10) The final script, which was well edited, was submitted on time.