|Communication: The imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing or using some other medium, e.g., phones, letters, television, etc.
Domestic Airports: There are 134 airports. The government owned Airports Authority of India (AAI) operates 122 airports and civil enclaves out of a total of 449 airports and airstrips located throughout India. Airports are managed by the Airport Authority of India.
Export : When goods are sent to another country it is called export.
East – West Corridor : An ongoing National Highway project from Silchar to Porbandar, a distance of about 3300 Km.
First-Class Mail: Mail that is airlifted between stations.
Import : When goods come from another country be sold in India it is called export.
International Airports: An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries. Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Thiruvananthapuram, Bengaluru, Amritsar, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Panaji, Guwahati and Cochin are some major international airport in India.
Metalled roads: Metalled roads are made of either cement, concrete or even bitumen of coal therefore, these are durable over the unmetalled road. Unmetalled roads go out of use in rainy season.
Mass Communication: It includes handbooks, journals, magazines, newspapers, radio, television and films. They are of two types: (i) print media, (ii) electronic media.
National Highway : National Highways are the primary road system which links extreme parts of the country.
North- South corridor : An ongoing National Highways project from Srinagar to Kanyakumari , a distance of about 4000 Km , with a spur from Salem to Kochi.
Personal Communication: It includes postcards, letters, telegrams, telephones and the internet.
Pass : A pass is a gap or break, in high , rugged terrain such as a mountain ridge.
Second-Class Mail: Mail that is carried by surface covering land and water transport.
Slurry : A thin mixture of semi solid with liquid , especially water and any of several finely crushed substances , such as cement , clay or minerals ore particles.
Tidal port : The water levels within tidal port are subjected to change with the ocean tides.
- 1 Different means of Transport
- 2 Advantages of Roadways
- 3 The Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways
- 4 Rural Road in India
- 5 Major Problems faced by Road Transport
- 6 Advantages of Railways in India
- 7 Qualitative improvements made in Indian Railways
- 8 Problems faced by Indian Railways
- 9 Challenges for Indian Railway
- 10 Classification of Roads on the basis of Capacity
- 11 Classification of Roads on the Basis of Material Used
- 12 Important pipeline Transportation Networks for Oil and Gas
- 13 Features of waterways in India
- 14 Factors that accord Prominence to Airways as a mode of Transportation
- 15 Classification of Roads into Six classes according to their Capacity
- 16 Significance of Border Roads
- 17 Five Problems faced by Road Transport in India
- 18 Communication
Different means of Transport
Goods are transported from supply to demand locations by people called traders. Transport is a key factor that influences India’s rapid economic development. Based on the medium it uses, the means of transport can be divided into land transport, water transport and air transport. The movement of goods and services from supply locations to demand locations is termed as transportation. The efficient means of transportation is a necessary condition for fast development of a country. There are different means of transport through which movement of these goods and services is done over three important domains of the earth i.e. land, water and air.
Land transport includes roadways, railways and pipelines. Pipelines are used to transport liquid and gaseous material over long distances.
Water transport can be classified as inland transport and overseas transport.
(a) Inland transport happens along the coastline between two domestic ports or through inland waterways.
(b) Overseas transport involves sending goods from one country to another.
Air transport can be classified as domestic and international. Private and government-run domestic airways connect different cities of India. International airways connect India with destinations in all parts of the world.
Some common means of communication are radio, television, cinema, newspapers, internet, fax and phone services. A dense, efficient network of transport, and extensive, reliable means of communication are the true lifelines of trade and economic development for India and the rest of the world.
Types of Transport Systems in India
There are five types of transport systems in India — roadways, railways, pipelines, waterways and airways.
(1) Roadways: A number of roads were built during the Mughal rule. Sher Shah Suri built the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong (now in Bangladesh) in the east to Peshawar (now in Pakistan) in the west.
(2) Railways: The railways are now more than 150 years old in India. The total track length of railways is about 1,19,630 km. While the total route length of the network is 66,687 km. India has the second largest railway network in Asia and the sixth largest railway network after USA, Russia, Canada, Germany and China. The Indian Railways carry 40,000 lakh passengers and 4,000 lakh tonnes of goods a year. It had a fleet of 11,122 locomotives, 54,506 passenger service vehicles, 6,899 other coach vehicles and 2,51,256 wagons as on March 2016.
(3) Pipelines were earlier used for the transportation of water and now they are being used for the transportation of crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas.
(4) Inland Waterways have a length of 14,500 km. There are 111 officially notified Inland National Waterways (NWs) in India identified for the purposes of inland water transport, as per The National Waterways Act, 2016. Out of the 111 NWs, 106 were created in 2016. The NW network covers around 20,275.5 km. NW-1, 2, & 3 are already operational.
The Ganga River between Allahabad and Haldia (1,620 km). – National Waterway No. 1
The Brahmaputra River between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km). – National Waterway No. 2.
The West-Coast canal in kerala (Kollapuram-Kollam, Udyogamandal and champakkara canals-205 km).
Specified stretches of Godavari and Krishna rivers along with Kakinada Puducherry stretch of canals (1,078 km) National Waterway No. 4.
(5) Airways are the fastest mode of transport but they are the costliest ones. In 1953, air transport was nationalised. 486 existing airports declared as potential airports for UDAN-RCS. There are 24 international airports.
Advantages of Roadways
(i) Construction cost of roads is economical .
(ii) Roads can be constructed easily in hilly terrains and undulating topography.
(iii) Roadways act as a feeder to other modes of transport, as they provide a link between railway stations, airports and seaports.
The Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways
(i) The Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways is a major road development project linking Delhi – Kolkata – Chennai – Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highways.
(ii) The two major objectives of this project are to (a) reduce the time and (b) distance between the mega cities of India.
(iii) The North-South Corridor linking Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu) and East-West Corridor connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbandar (Gujarat).
Rural Road in India
(i) Rural roads link rural areas and villages with towns.
(ii) These roads received special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
(iii) Special provisions are made so that every village in the country is linked to a major town in the country by an all season motorable road.
Major Problems faced by Road Transport
(i) The road network is inadequate.
(ii) About half of the roads are unmetalled.
(iii) This limits their usage during the rainy season.
(iv) The roadways are highly congested in cities.
(v) Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.
(vi) Most of the roads are not fit for smooth running.
Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight (goods) and passengers in India. They carry bulky weight and are excellent for long distances. The Indian Railways network spread over a route length of 66,687 km. Railways provide a number of different activities to people like business, sightseeing, pilgrimage as well as transportation of goods over longer distances.
For the administrative convenience, Indian railways are divided into 16 zones. There are 3 types of gauges (railways track) i.e. broad gauge, metre gauge and narrow gauge.
Indian Railways is the largest public sector undertaking in the country. The first train started from Mumbai to Thane in 1853, covering a distance of 34 km.
Advantages of Railways in India
(i) It is both convenient and safer to travel long distances by railways.
(ii) They give employment to a large number of people.
(iii) Railways also make it possible to conduct multifarious activities like business, sightseeing, and pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over longer distances.
(iv) Plays an important role in national integration.
(v) Railways bind the economic life of the country.
(vi) It accelerates the development of the industry and agriculture.
Qualitative improvements made in Indian Railways
(i) Conversion of meter gauge to broad gauge.
(ii)Steam engines have been replaced by diesel and electric engines. This has increased the speed and haulage capacity.
(iii)The replacement of steam engine run by coal has improved the environment of stations and their surroundings.
(iv)Railways routes have been extended to areas where there was no railway line earlier.
Problems faced by Indian Railways
(i) It lacks repair and maintenance of tracks and bridges.
(ii) Shifting from one gauge to another is a problem.
(iii) Rail traffic has increased and the old tracks are not able to carry the increased load and thus accidents are frequent.
(iv) Many passengers travel without tickets, causing loss to the railways.
(v) Thefts and damaging of railway property may lead to severe accidents
Challenges for Indian Railway
(1) It is difficult to lay railway lines in the hilly regions of peninsular India. In these regions railways tracts are laid through low hills, gaps’ or tunnels.
(2) The Himalayan mountainous regions too are unfavourable for the old construction of railway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities.
(3) It requires construction of bridges over rivers in India.
(4) It is difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plain of Western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand.
(5) There are problems of sinking off railway tracks. For example, Sahyadri or Western Ghats has faced a number of problems such as sinking of track in some stretches and landslides.
(6) The initial costs of laying the tracks are too high.
Road transport is growing in importance as compared to railways because of the following reasons
(1) Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines.
(2) Roads can be built in uneven surfaces like hills and mountain.
(3) Roads can be built over higher slopes and can traverse (cross) mountains such as the Himalayas.
(4) Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
(5) Road transport also provides door-to-door service, thus, the cost of loading and unloading is much lower.
(6) Road transport links other modes of transport like between railway stations, air and sea ports.
Classification of Roads on the basis of Capacity
(i) Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways
This is an important road development project which has been launched by the Government of India. These are six lane super highways which connect Delhi-Kolkata, Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi. They have the following corridors .
(a) North-South corridors: linking Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu).
(b) East-West corridors: linking Silchar (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat).
(ii) National Highways
They link extreme parts of the country. National Highways are the primary road systems and are constructed and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD) under NHAI’s supervision.
India has a number of National highways which connect the North-South and East-West parts of the country.
The National Highway No-1 is a historical highway which is known as Sher Shah Suri Marg. This highways connects Delhi and Amritsar.
(iii) State Highways
These are roads linking a state capital with its district headquarters. They are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (SPWD) in States and Union Territories.
(iv) District Roads
These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district. These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad of the district.
(v) Other Roads
Rural roads, which link rural areas and villages with towns, are classified under this category. These are constructed under Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). Under this scheme, special provisions have been made to link every village to a major town in the country by an all season motorable road.
(vi) Border Roads
The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) constructs and maintains roads in the border areas of the country. This organisation was established in 1960.
Classification of Roads on the Basis of Material Used
(a) Metalled Roads : They may be made of cement, concrete or even bitumen of coal. Therefore, these are all weather roads.
(b) Unmetalled or Unpaved Roads: They are made of clay, crushed rock and can be used in dry season only. They have no use during rainy season.
Pipeline transport network is the new mode of transport these days. In the past, pipelines were used to transport water to cities and industries. Now, these are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertiliser factories and big thermal power plants. Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into a slurry.Merits:
(i) Useful in transporting liquids and solid slurry from faraway locations.
(ii) Subsequent running costs after laying down the network are minimal.
(iii) Subsequent running costs are minimal.
(iv) It is economical to transport petroleum, natural gas, fertiliser to interior places.
(i) Initial cost of laying pipelines is high.
(ii) Pipelines can burst or can have leakage leading to wastage of valuable resource like water, mineral oil, etc.
Important pipeline Transportation Networks for Oil and Gas
(2) Pipeline from Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu and other places.
(3) Gas Pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat to Jagdishpur (Uttar Pradesh) via Vijaipur (Madhya Pradesh). It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahjahanpur, Barbala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.
Features of waterways in India
(i) India has been one of the seafaring countries.
(ii) Seamen sailed far and near; carrying and spreading Indian commerce and culture.
(iii) Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
(iv) They are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods over a long distance.
(v) It is fuel-efficient and environment friendly mode of transport.
(vi) 95% of the country’s trade volume is moved by sea.
Factors that accord Prominence to Airways as a mode of Transportation
(i) They are the fastest mode of transportation.
(ii) They are the best means of transport for remote, inaccessible and hostile areas.
(iii) Airways play a vital role in the event of natural and human-made calamities like floods, famines, earthquake, epidemics and war by virtue of their swiftness.
Air transport is more popular in north-eastern India because
(i) Big and wide rivers are present there, due to which rail or road bridges over them are difficult and costly to construct. These rivers also get flooded frequently, due to which surface communication links are damaged.
(ii) This area has dissected relief features, preventing durable construction of rail and road links.
(iii) Dense forests in this region create many difficulties in the construction of railway lines and roads.
The physiographic and economic factors that have influenced the distribution pattern of the railway network in our country.
(i) The Northern Plains with their vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provide the most favourable condition for the growth of railway networks.
(ii) The uneven terrain like hills, mountains, rivers with wide beds have posed a severe obstacle in the infrastructural development of railways like laying tracks, construction of bridges and so on.
(iii) In the hilly terrain of the peninsular region, railway tracks are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels.
(iv) The Himalayan mountainous regions too are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities.
(v) It is equally difficult on the sandy plain of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand.
(i) There are several economic factors that affect the distribution of railways e.g. state funding plays a vital role in the development of railways across the nations.
(ii) The state with flexible laws supports the growth of railways. Along with this, the places that are highly industrialised attract the development of railways. Since the growth of both is complementary to each other e.g. recently railways network is enhancing along the industrial corridors.
Road transport and Rail transport in India are not competitive but complementary to each other.
(i) Road transport is more suitable for short distances whereas rail transport is more suitable for long distances.
(ii) Road transport is economical in the transportation of a few persons and a relatively smaller amount of goods over a short distances, whereas rail transport is more suitable for large number of people and heavy goods.
(iii) It is beneficial for perishable goods to be carried by roads in short period of time, whereas nonperishable and bulky are transported by railways for a longer distance.
(iv) Road transport increases the efficiency of railways.
(vi) The deficiency of railways is compensated by road transport.
Classification of Roads into Six classes according to their Capacity
(i) Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways reduced the time and distance between the mega cities of India.
(ii) National Highways connect the state capitals, big cities and important ports.
(iii) State Highways join the state capitals with district headquarters.
(iv) District Roads connect the district centres with the major roads.
(v) Other Rural Roads which link rural areas and villages with towns.
(vi) Border Roads have increased accessibility in areas of difficult terrain.
Significance of Border Roads
(i) Border Roads Organization was established in 1960.
(ii) This organization develops the roads of strategic importance in the northern and the north-eastern border areas.
(iii) These roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain.
(iv) These roads have enabled the economy to develop in the border areas.
Five Problems faced by Road Transport in India
(i) Volume of traffic and passengers is very large.
(ii) Road network is inadequate.
(iii) Half the roads are unmetalled, which limits their usage in rainy seasons.
(iv) National highways too are inadequate.
(v) Roadways are highly congested in cities and most bridges and culverts are old and narrow.
Indian Postal Network
Excluding urban places more than two-thirds of the villages in India have already been covered with Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) telephone facility.
There is a uniform rate of STD facilities all over India. It has been made possible by integrating the development in space technology with communication technology.
Television and Radio
Newspapers, Periodicals and Magazines
The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade. Trade between two countries is called international trade. The market is a place where such exchanges take place. The international trade may take place through sea, air or land routes. Local trade is carried in cities, towns and villages. State level trade is carried between two or more states. International trade is very essential and no country can survive without it. It is because the resources are distributed unevenly over the earth’s surface and no country is self-sufficient in every kind of resources.
Balance of Trade (BOT)
Export and import are the components of trade. The balance of trade is the difference between export and import of a country. When the value of export exceeds the value of imports, it is called a favourable balance of trade. On the other hand, if the value of imports exceeds the value of exports, it is termed as unfavourable balance of trade. India has trade relations with all the major trading blocks and all geographical regions of the world.
Exported and Imported Commodities
The commodities exported from India to other countries include gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, agriculture and allied products, etc. India has emerged as a software giant at the international level and it is earning large foreign exchange through the export of information technology. The commodities imported from other countries of India include petroleum crude and products, gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, base metals, electronic items, machinery, agriculture and allied products.