The post Exercise 8.6 appeared first on Class Notes.
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Ex 8.6 Class 6 Maths Question 1. Subtract :
(a) ₹ 18.25 from ₹ 20.75
(b) 202.54 m from 250 m
(c) ₹ 5.36 from ₹ 8.40
(d) 2.051 km from 5.206 km
(e) 0.314 kg from 2.107 kg
Answer
(a) ₹ 20.75 – ₹ 18.75
20.75
– 18.25
_______
2.50
_______
₹ 2.50
(b) 250 m – 202.54 m
250.00
– 202.54
_________
47.46
_________
47.46 m
(c) ₹ 8.40 – ₹ 5.36
8.40
– 5.36
______
3.04
______
₹ 3.04
(d) 5.206 km – 2.051 km
5.206
– 2.051
________
3.155
________
3.155 km
(e) 2.107 kg – 0.314 kg
2.107
– 0.314
_______
1.793
_______
1.793 kg
Ex 8.6 Class 6 Maths Question 2. Find the value of :
(a) 9.756 – 6.28
(b) 21.05 – 15.27
(c) 18.5 – 6.79
(d) 11.6 – 9.847
Answer
(a) 9.756
– 6.280
______
3.476
______
(b) 21.05
– 15.27
________
5.78
________
(c) 18.50
– 6.79
_______
11.71
_______
(d) 11.600
– 9.847
_________
1.753
__________
Ex 8.6 Class 6 Maths Question 3. Raju bought a book for ` 35.65. He gave ` 50 to the shopkeeper. How much money did he get back from the shopkeeper?
Answer
Money given to shopkeeper = ₹ 50.00
Price of the book = ₹ 35.65
Money that Raju will get back from the shopkeeper will be the difference of these two
Therefore Money left with Raju is
50.00
– 35.65
________
14.35
________
Hence, money left with Raju is ₹ 14.35
Ex 8.6 Class 6 Maths Question 4. Rani had ₹ 18.50. She bought one icecream for ₹ 11.75. How much money does she have now?
Answer
Money with Rani = ₹ 18.50
Price of an ice cream = ₹ 11.75
Now money left with Rani will be the difference of these two
Hence, money left with her is
18.50
– 11.75
_______
6.75
_______
Therefore Money left with Rani is ₹ 6.75
Ex 8.6 Class 6 Maths Question 5. Tina had 20 m 5 cm long cloth. She cuts 4 m 50 cm length
of cloth from this for making a curtain. How much cloth is left with her?
Answer
Length of cloth = 20 m 5 cm
= 20.05 m
Length of cloth to make a curtain = 4 m 50 cm
= 4.50 m
Length of cloth left with Tina will be the difference of these two
Thus length of cloth left with her is
20.05
– 4.50
________
15.55
________
Therefore The length of the remaining cloth left with Tina is 15.55 m
Ex 8.6 Class 6 Maths Question 6. Namita travels 20 km 50 m every day. Out of this she travels
10 km 200 m by bus and the rest by auto. How much distance does she travel by auto?
Answer
Total distance travelled by Namita = 20 km 50 m
= 20.050 km
Distance travelled by bus = 10 km 200 m
= 10.200 km
Distance travelled by auto = Total distance travelled – Distance travelled by bus
Therefore Distance to be travelled by auto is
20.050
– 10.200
_______
9.850
_______
Therefore Namita travelled 9.850 km by auto
Ex 8.6 Class 6 Maths Question 7. Aakash bought vegetables weighing 10 kg. Out of this, 3 kg 500 g is onions, 2 kg 75 g is tomatoes and the rest is potatoes. What is the weight of the potatoes?
Answer
Total weight of vegetables Aakash bought = 10.000 kg
Weight of onions = 3 kg 500 g
= 3.500 kg
Weight of tomatoes = 2 kg 75 g
= 2.075 kg
Weight of potatoes = Total weight of vegetables bought – (weight of onions + weight of tomatoes)
= 10.000 – (3.500 + 2.075)
3.500
+ 2.075
_______
5.575
_______
10.000
– 5.575
_______
4.425
_______
Therefore 4.425 kg is the weight of the potatoes
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]]>The post Exercise 8.5 appeared first on Class Notes.
]]>Page 179
Ex 8.5 Class 6 Maths Question 1. 1. Find the sum in each of the following :
(a) 0.007 + 8.5 + 30.08
(b) 15 + 0.632 + 13.8
(c) 27.076 + 0.55 + 0.004
(d) 25.65 + 9.005 + 3.7
(e) 0.75 + 10.425 + 2
(f) 280.69 + 25.2 + 38
Answer
(a) Sum of 0.007 + 8.5 + 30.08
0.007
8.500
+ 30.080
_______
38.587
_______
(b) Sum of 15 + 0.632 + 13.8
15.000
0.632
+ 13.800
_______
29.432
_______
(c) Sum of 27.076 + 0.55 + 0.004
27.076
0.550
+ 0.004
________
27.630
________
(d) Sum of 25.65 + 9.005 + 3.7
25.650
9.005
+ 3.700
_______
38.355
_______
(e) Sum of 0.75 + 10.425 + 2
0.750
10.425
+ 2.000
_______
13.175
_______
(f) Sum of 280.69 + 25.2 + 38
280.69
25.20
+ 38.00
________
343.89
________
Ex 8.5 Class 6 Maths Question 2. Rashid spent ₹ 35.75 for Maths book and ₹ 32.60 for Science book. Find the total amount spent by Rashid.
Answer
Cost of Maths book = ₹ 35.75
Cost of Science book = ₹ 32.60
Total amount spent by Rashid is
35.75
+ 32.60
_______
68.35
_______
Therefore Total amount of money spent by Rashid is ₹ 68.35
Ex 8.5 Class 6 Maths Question 3. Radhika’s mother gave her ₹ 10.50 and her father gave her ₹ 15.80, find the total amount given to Radhika by the parents.
Answer
Amount given by Radhika’s mother = ₹ 10.50
Amount given by Radhika’s father = ₹ 15.80
Total amount given by her parents
10.50
+ 15.80
________
26.30
________
Therefore Total amount of money given by Radhika’s parents is ₹ 26.30
Ex 8.5 Class 6 Maths Question 4. Nasreen bought 3 m 20 cm cloth for her shirt and 2 m 5 cm cloth for her trouser. Find the total length of cloth bought by her.
Answer
Cloth of shirt = 3 m 20 cm
Cloth of trouser = 2 m 5 cm
Total length of cloth is
3.20
+ 2.05
________
5.25
_________
Therefore Total length of cloth bought by Nasreen is 5.25 m
Ex 8.5 Class 6 Maths Question 5. Naresh walked 2 km 35 m in the morning and 1 km 7 m in the evening. How much distance did he walk in all?
Answer
Distance walked by Naresh in the morning = 2 km 35 m
= [(2 + 35 /1000)] km
= 2.035 km
Distance walked by him in the evening = 1 km 7 m
= [(1 + 7 / 1000)] km
= 1.007 km
Total distance walked by Naresh is
2.035
+ 1.007
_______
3.042
________
Therefore Total distance walked by Naresh is 3.042 km
Ex 8.5 Class 6 Maths Question 6. Sunita travelled 15 km 268 m by bus, 7 km 7 m by car and 500 m on foot in order to reach her school. How far is her school from her residence?
Answer
Distance travelled by bus = 15 km 268 m
= [(15 + 268 / 1000)] km
= 15.268 km
Distance travelled by car = 7 km 7 m
= [(7 + 7 / 1000)] km
= 7.007 km
Distance walked by Sunita = 500 m
= 500 / 1000
= 0.500 km
Total distance of school from her residence is
15.268
7.007
+ 0.500
________
22.775
________
Therefore Total distance of the school from her residence is 22.775 km
Ex 8.5 Class 6 Maths Question 7. Ravi purchased 5 kg 400 g rice, 2 kg 20 g sugar and 10 kg 850g flour. Find the total weight of his purchases.
Answer
Weight of rice = 5 kg 400 g
= [(5 + 400 / 1000)] kg
= 5.400 kg
Weight of sugar = 2 kg 20 g
= [(2 + 20 / 1000)] kg
= 2.020 kg
Weight of flour = 10 kg 850 g
= [(10 + 850 / 1000)] kg
= 10.850 kg
Total weight of his purchases is
5.400
2.020
+ 10.850
________
18.270
________
Therefore Total weight of his purchases is 18.270 kg
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]]>The post Exercise 8.4 appeared first on Class Notes.
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Ex 8.4 Class 6 Maths Question 1. Express as rupees using decimals.
(a) 5 paise (b) 75 paise (c) 20 paise
(d) 50 rupees 90 paise (e) 725 paise
Answer
We know that there are 100 paise in 1 rupees
(a) 5 paise = 5 / 100 rupees
= Rupess 0.05
(b) 75 paise = 75 / 100 rupees
= Rupees 0.75
(c) 20 paise = 20 / 100 rupees
= Rupees 0.20
(d) 50 rupees 90 paise = [(50 + 90 / 100)] rupees
= Rupees 50.90
(e) 725 paise = 725 / 100 rupees
= Rupees 7.25
Ex 8.4 Class 6 Maths Question 2. Express as metres using decimals.
(a) 15 cm (b) 6 cm (c) 2 m 45 cm
(d) 9 m 7 cm (e) 419 cm
Answer
We know that there are 100 cm in 1 metre
(a) 15 cm = 15 / 100 m
= 0.15 m
(b) 6 cm = 6 / 100 m
= 0.06 m
(c) 2 m 45 cm = [(2 + 45 / 100)] m
= 2.45 m
(d) 9 m 7 cm = [(9 + 7 / 100)] m
= 9.07 m
(e) 419 cm = 419 / 100 m
= 4.19 m
Ex 8.4 Class 6 Maths Question 3. Express as cm using decimals.
(a) 5 mm (b) 60 mm (c) 164 mm
(d) 9 cm 8 mm (e) 93 mm
Answer
We know that there are 10 mm in 1 cm
(a) 5 mm = 5 / 10 cm
= 0.5 cm
(b) 60 mm = 60 / 10 cm
= 6.0 cm
(c) 164 mm = 164 / 10 cm
= 16.4 cm
(d) 9 cm 8 mm = [(9 + 8 / 10)] cm
= 9.8 cm
(e) 93 mm = 93 / 10 cm
= 9.3 cm
Ex 8.4 Class 6 Maths Question 4. Express as km using decimals.
(a) 8 m (b) 88 m
(c) 8888 m (d) 70 km 5 m
Answer
We know that there are 1000 metres in 1 km
(a) 8 m = 8 / 1000 km
= 0.008 km
(b) 88 m = 88 / 1000 km
= 0.088 km
(c) 8888 m = 8888 / 1000 km
= 8.888 km
(d) 70 km 5 m = [(70 + 5 / 1000)] km
= 70.005 km
Ex 8.4 Class 6 Maths Question 5. Express as kg using decimals.
(a) 2 g (b) 100 g (c) 3750 g
(d) 5 kg 8 g (e) 26 kg 50 g
Answer
We know that there are 1000 grams in 1 kg
(a) 2 g = 2 / 1000 kg
= 0.002 kg
(b) 100 g = 100 / 1000 kg
= 0.1 kg
(c) 3750 g = 3750 / 1000 kg
= 3.750 kg
(d) 5 kg 8 g = [(5 + 8 / 1000)] kg
= 5.008 kg
(e) 26 kg 50 g = [(20 + 50 / 1000)] kg
= 26.050 kg
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]]>The post Exercise 8.3 appeared first on Class Notes.
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Ex 8.3 Class 6 Maths Question 1. Which is greater?
(a) 0.3 or 0.4 (b) 0.07 or 0.02 (c) 3 or 0.8 (d) 0.5 or 0.05 (e) 1.23 or 1.2
(f) 0.099 or 0.19 (g) 1.5 or 1.50 (h) 1.431 or 1.490 (i) 3.3 or 3.300 (j) 5.64 or 5.603
Answer
(a) 0.3 or 0.4
Whole parts for both the numbers are same. We know that the tenth part of 0.4 is greater than that of 0.3
Therefore 0.4 > 0.3
(b) 0.07 or 0.02
Both the numbers have same parts up to the tenth place but the hundredth part of 0.07 is greater than that of 0.02
Therefore 0.07 > 0.02
(c) 3 or 0.8
The whole part of 3 is greater than that of 0.8
Therefore 3 > 0.8
(d) 0.5 or 0.05
Whole parts for both the numbers are same. Here the tenth part of 0.5 is greater than that of 0.05
Therefore 0.5 > 0.05
(e) 1.23 or 1.20
Here both the numbers have same parts up to the tenth place. The hundredth part of 1.23 is greater than that of 1.20
Therefore 1.23 > 1.20
(f) 0.099 or 0.19
Whole parts for both the numbers are same. Here the tenth part of 0.19 is greater than that of 0.099
Therefore 0.099 < 0.19
(g) 1.5 or 1.50
We may find that both numbers have same parts up to the tenth place. Here 1.5 have no digit at hundredth place. It represents that this digit is 0, which is equal to the digit at hundredth place of 1.50.
Therefore Both these numbers are equal
(h) 1.431 or 1.490
Here, both the numbers have same parts up to the tenth place but the hundredth part of 1.490 is greater than that of 1.431
Therefore 1.431 < 1.490
(i) 3.3 or 3.300
Here, both numbers have same parts up to the tenth place. There are no digits at hundredth and thousandth place of 3.3. It represents that these numbers are 0, which is equal to the digits at hundredth and thousandth place of 3.300.
Therefore Both these numbers are equal
(j) 5.64 or 5.603
Here both numbers have same parts up to the tenth place but the hundredth part of 5.64 is greater than that of 5.603
Therefore 5.64 > 5.603
Ex 8.3 Class 6 Maths Question 2. Make five more examples and find the greater number from them.
Answer
(a) 32.55 or 32.5
Whole parts for both the numbers are same. The tenth part are also equal, but the hundredth part of 32.55 is greater than that of 32.5
Hence, 32.55 > 32.5
(b) 1 or 0.99
The whole part of 1 is greater than that of 0.99
Therefore 1 > 0.99
(c) 1.09 or 1.093
Here both the numbers have same parts up to the hundredth. But the thousandth part of 1.093 is greater than that of 1.09
Therefore 1.093 > 1.09
(d) 2 or 1.99
The whole part of 2 is greater than that of 1.99
Therefore 2 > 1.99
(e) 2.08 or 2.085
Here both the numbers have same parts up to the hundredth. But the thousandth part of 2.085 is greater than that of 2.08
Therefore 2.085 > 2.08
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Ex 8.2 Class 6 Maths Question 1. Write the following as numbers in the given table.
Answer
Rows  Ones  Tenths  Hundreds  Number 
(a)  0  2  6  0.26 
(b)  1  3  8  1.38 
(c)  1  2  8  1.28 
Ex 8.2 Class 6 Maths Question 2. Write the numbers given in the following place value
table in decimal form.
Hundreds 100 
Tens 10 
Ones 1 
Tenths 1/10 
Hundredths 1/100 
Thousandths 1/1000 

(a)  0  0  3  2  5  0 
(b)  1  0  2  6  3  0 
(c)  0  3  0  0  2  5 
(d)  2  1  1  9  0  2 
(e)  0  1  2  2  4  1 
Answer
(a) 3 + 2 / 10 + 5 / 100
= 3 + 0.2 + 0.05
= 3.25
(b) 100 + 2 + 6 / 10 + 3 / 100
= 102 + 0.6 + 0.03
= 102.63
(c) 30 + 2 / 100 + 5 / 1000
= 30 + 0.02 + 0.005
= 30.025
(d) 200 + 10 + 1 + 9 / 10 + 2 / 1000
= 211 + 0.9 + 0.002
= 211.902
(e) 10 + 2 + 2 / 10 + 4 / 100 + 1 / 1000
= 12 + 0.2 + 0.04 + 0.001
= 12.241
Ex 8.2 Class 6 Maths Question 3. Write the following decimals in the place value table.
(a) 0.29 (b) 2.08 (c) 19.60 (d) 148.32 (e) 200.812
Answer
(a)0.29
= 0.2 + 0.09
= 2 / 10 + 9 / 100
(b) 2.08
= 2 + 0.08
= 2 + 8 / 100
(c) 19.60
= 19 + 0.60
= 10 + 9 + 6 / 10
(d) 148.32
= 148 + 0.3 + 0.02
= 100 + 40 + 8 + 3 / 10 + 2 / 100
(e) 200.812
= 200 + 0.8 + 0.01 + 0.002
=200 + 8 / 10 + 1 / 100 + 2 / 1000
Hundreds  Tens  Ones  Tenths  Hundredths  Thousandths 
0  0  0  2  9  0 
0  0  2  0  8  0 
0  1  9  6  0  0 
1  4  8  3  2  0 
2  0  0  8  1  2 
Ex 8.2 Class 6 Maths Question 4. Write each of the following as decimals.
(a) 20+9+4/10+1/100 (b) 137+5/100 (c) 7/10 + 6/100 + 4/1000
(d) 23 + 2/10 + 6/1000 (e) 700 + 20 + 5 + 9/100
Answer
(a) 20 + 9 + 4 / 10 + 1 / 100
= 29 + 0.4 + 0.01
= 29.41
(b) 137 + 5 / 100
= 137 + 0.05
= 137.05
(c) 7 / 10 + 6 / 100 + 4 / 1000
= 0.7 + 0.06 + 0.004
=0.764
(d) 23 + 2 / 10 + 6 / 1000
= 23 + 0.2 + 0.006
= 23.206
(e) 700 + 20 + 5 + 9 / 100
= 725 + 0.09
= 725.09
Ex 8.2 Class 6 Maths Question 5. Write each of the following decimals in words.
(a) 0.03 (b) 1.20 (c) 108.56 (d) 10.07 (e) 0.032 (f) 5.008
Answer
The following are the decimals in words
(a) 0.03 = zero point zero three
(b) 1.20 = one point two zero
(c) 108.56 = one hundred eight point five six
(d) 10.07 = ten point zero seven
(e) 0.032 = zero point zero three two
(f) 5.008 = five point zero zero eight
Ex 8.2 Class 6 Maths Question 6. Between which two numbers in tenths place on the number line does each of the given number lie?
(a) 0.06 (b) 0.45 (c) 0.19 (d) 0.66 (e) 0.92 (f) 0.57
Answer
(a)0.60 lies between 0 and 0.1 in tenths place
(b) 0.45 lies between 0.4 and 0.5 in tenths place
(c) 0.19 lies between 0.1 and 0.2 in tenths place
(d) 0.66 lies between 0.6 and 0.7 in tenths place
(e) 0.92 lies between 0.9 and 1.0 in tenths place
(f) 0.57 lies between 0.5 and 0.6 in tenths place
Ex 8.2 Class 6 Maths Question 7. Write as fractions in lowest terms.
(a) 0.60 (b) 0.05 (c) 0.75 (d) 0.18 (e) 0.25 (f) 0.125 (g) 0.066
Answer
(a)0.60 = 60 / 100
= 6 / 10
= 3 / 5
(b) 0.05 = 5 / 100
= 1 / 20
(c) 0.75 = 75 / 100
= 3 / 4
(d) 0.18 = 18 / 100
= 9 / 50
(e) 0.25 = 25 / 100
= 1 / 4
(f) 0.125 = 125 / 1000
= 1 / 8
(g) 0.066 = 66 / 1000
= 33 / 500
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]]>The post Class 6 Maths Chapter 8 Decimals appeared first on Class Notes.
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Ex 8.1 Class 6 Maths Question 1. Write the following as numbers in the given table.
Hundreds (100) 
Tens (10) 
Ones (1) 
Tenths (1/10) 
Answer
Rows  Hundreds  Tens  Ones  Tenths 
a  0  3  1  2 
b  1  1  0  4 
Ex 8.1 Class 6 Maths Question 2. Write the following decimals in the place value table.
(a) 19.4 (b) 0.3 (c) 10.6 (d) 205.9
Answer
Hundreds  Tens  Ones  Tenths  
19.4  0  1  9  4 
0.3  0  0  0  3 
10.6  0  1  0  6 
205.9  2  0  5  9 
Ex 8.1 Class 6 Maths Question 3. Write each of the following as decimals :
(a) Seventenths (b) Two tens and ninetenths
(c) Fourteen point six (d) One hundred and two ones
(e) Six hundred point eight
Answer
(a) The decimal form of Seventenths is 7 / 10 = 0.7
(b) The decimal form of two tens and nine tenths is 20 + 9 / 10 = 20.9
(c) The decimal form of fourteen point six is 14.6
(d) The decimal form of one hundred and two ones is 100 + 2 = 102.0
(e) The decimal form of six hundred point eight is 600.8
Ex 8.1 Class 6 Maths Question 4. Write each of the following as decimals:
Answer
(a) 5/10 = 0.5
(b) 3 + 7/10 = 3 + 0.7 = 3.7
(c) 200 + 60 + 5 + 1/10 = 200 + 60 + 5 + 0.1 = 265.1
(d) 70 + 8/10 = 70 + 0.8 = 70.8
(e) 88/10 = 80/10 + 8/10 = 8 + 0.8 = 8.8
= 4 + 2/10 = 4 + 0.2 = 4.2
(g) 3/2 = (2+1) / 2 = 2/2 + 1/2 = 1 + 0.5 = 1.5
(h) 2/5 = 0.4
(i) 12/5 = (10+2)/ 5 = 10/5 + 2/5 = 2 + 0.4 = 2.4
= 3 + 3/5 = 3 + 0.6 = 3.6
= 4 + 1/2 = 4 + 0.5 = 4.5
Ex 8.1 Class 6 Maths Question 5. Write the following decimals as fractions. Reduce the fractions to lowest form.
(a) 0.6 (b) 2.5 (c) 1.0 (d) 3.8 (e) 13.7 (f) 21.2 (g) 6.4
Answer
(a) 0.6 = 6 / 10
= 3 / 5
(b) 2.5 = 25 / 10
= 5 / 2
(c) 1.0 = 1
= 1
(d) 3.8 = 38 / 10
= 19 / 5
(e) 13. 7 = 137 / 10
(f) 21.2 = 212 / 10
= 106 / 5
(g) 6.4 = 64 / 10
= 32 / 5
Ex 8.1 Class 6 Maths Question 6. Express the following as cm using decimals.
(a) 2 mm (b) 30 mm (c) 116 mm (d) 4 cm 2 mm (e) 162 mm (f) 83 mm
Answer
We know that 1 cm = 10 mm & 1 mm = 1 / 10 cm
(a) 2 mm = 2 / 10 cm
= 0.2 cm
(b) 30 mm = 30 / 10 cm
= 3.0 cm
(c) 116 mm = 116 / 10 cm
= 11.6 cm
(d) 4 cm 2 mm = [(4 + 2 / 10)] cm
= 4.2 cm
(e) 162 mm = 162 / 10 cm
= 16.2 cm
(f) 83 mm = 83 / 10 cm
= 8.3 cm
Ex 8.1 Class 6 Maths Question 7. Between which two whole numbers on the number line are the given numbers lie?
Which of these whole numbers is nearer the number?
(a) 0.8 (b) 5.1 (c) 2.6 (d) 6.4 (e) 9.1 (f) 4.9
Answer
(a) 0.8 lies between 0 and 1
0.8 is nearer to 1
(b) 5.1 lies between 5 and 6
5.1 is nearer to 5
(c) 2.6 lies between 2 and 3
2.6 is nearer to 3
(d) 6.4 lies between 6 and 7
6.4 is nearer to 6
(e) 9.1 lies between 9 and 10
9.1 is nearer to 9
(f) 4.9 lies between 4 and 5
4.9 is nearer to 5
Ex 8.1 Class 6 Maths Question 8. Show the following numbers on the number line.
(a) 0.2 (b) 1.9 (c) 1.1 (d) 2.5
Answer
Ex 8.1 Class 6 Maths Question 9. Write the decimal number represented by the points
A, B, C, D on the given number line.
Answer
(a) Point A represents 0.8 cm on the given number line.
(b) Point B represents 1.3 cm on the given number line
(c) Point C represents 2.2 cm on the given number line
(d) Point D represents 2.9 cm on the given number line
Ex 8.1 Class 6 Maths Question 10. (a) The length of Ramesh’s notebook is 9 cm 5 mm. What will be its length in cm?
Answer
(a) The length of Ramesh notebook is 9 cm 5 mm
The length in cm is [(9 + 5 / 10)] cm = 9 + 0.5 cm
= 9.5 cm
(b) The length of a young gram plant is 65 mm. Express its length in cm.
Answer
(b) The length of a gram plant is 65 mm
Hence, the length in cm is 65 / 10
= 6.5 cm
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हिन्दी में शरीर के अंगों के नाम इस प्रकार हैं :
Eye  आँख 
Ear  कान 
Nose  नाक 
Mouth  मुंह 
Hand  हाथ 
Foot  पैर 
Forehead  माथा 
Lips  होंठ 
Chest  छाती 
Stomach or Belly  पेट 
Arm  बाँह 
Thumb  अंगूठा 
Shoulder  कंधा 
Finger  उंगली 
Teeth  दाँत 
Tongue  जीभ 
Ankle  एड़ी 
Lung  फेफड़ा 
Face  चेहरा 
Hair  बाल 
Neck  गर्दन 
Back  कमर 
Leg  टाँग 
Foot  पाँव 
Moustache  मूछ 
Muscles  मांसपेशी 
Nails  नाखून 
Navel  नाभि 
Nostril  नासिका छिद्र 
Palate  तालु 
Palm  हथेली 
Rib  पसली 
Skin  त्वचा 
Skull  खोपड़ी 
Speen  प्लीहा 
Thigh  जाँघ 
Throat  गला 
Toe  पैर की अंगुली 
Uterus  गर्भ 
Vein  नस 
Waist  कमर 
Beard  दाढ़ी 
Womb  गर्भाशय 
Wrist  कलाई 
Artery  धमनी 
Backbone  रीढ़ की हड्डी 
Bone  हड्डी 
Blood  खून 
Brain  दिमाग 
Chin  ठोड़ी 
Heart  दिल 
Intestine  आंत 
Jaws  जबड़ा 
Joints  जोड़ 
Kidney  गुर्दा 
Eyelid  पलक 
Gum  मसूड़ा 
Cheek  गाल 
Temple  कनपटी 
Hip  कूल्हे 
Calf  पिंडली 
Liver  यकृत 
Sole  तलवा 
Eyelid  चक्षुपटल 
Breast  स्तन 
Ear drum  कान का पर्दा 
Trachea  कंठनाल 
Anus  गुदा 
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Activity 1. Look at Figures,Write 150 words on what the differences in the pictures tell us about the society and culture in France at the time of the Revolution.
Answer The differences tell us about the social and cultural differences among the various sections of French society at that time. The members of the Jacobin clubs wore long trousers and even called themselves the sans culottes’ (meaning “without knee breeches”) to distinguish themselves from the aristocracy who wore the fashionable knee breeches.
The pictures also tell us that the women of the middle classes could be distinguished from the women of aristocratic families, as the latter wore a corset under their dress to look narrowwaisted, which was considered the accepted norm for women.
In the men also there are many differences in the headgear, with the aristocrats wearing elaborate wigs, whereas the middle class men wore the red cap of liberty and the revolutionary cockade pinned on to a hat. The simplicity of clothing in the middle classes was meant to express the idea of equality.
Page 163
Question 1 Read Sources A and B. What do they tell ideas of clothing in Victorian society? If you were the principal in Mary Somerville’s school how would you have justified the clothing practices?
Source A
Mary Somerville, one of the first woman mathematicians, describes in her memoirs the experience of her childhood day. Although perfectly straight and well made, I was encased in stiff stays, with a steel busk in front, while above my frock, bands drew my shoulder back until the shoulder blades met. Then a steel rod with a semicircle, which went under my chin, was clasped to he steel busk in my stays in this constrained state, and most of the younger girls had to prepare out lessons. From Martha Somerville, ed, Personal Recollections from Early Life to Old Age of Mary Somerville, London 1873. 
Source B
Many government officials of the time were alarmed at the health implications the prevailing styles of dressing amongst women. Consider the following attack on corset: It is evident physiologically that air is the pabulum of life, and that the effect of a tight cord round the neck and of tight lacing differ only in degrees for the strangulations are both fatal. To wear tight stays in many cases is to wither, to waste, to die. The Registrar General in the Ninth Annual Report of 1857 
Answer Sources A and B are exemplifying the fact that dresses of women in Victorian society were very tight. In fact, they were strangulating wearer and in some cases could even cause death. These dresses Supposed to signify the role of women in society as secondary to men were the Principal of Mary Somerville’s school, I would have justified the clothing practices, giving the following reasons
a) A woman has to be docile, dutiful, submissive and obedient. That is her role in society
b) These dresses are meant to inculcate these qualities into a girl by making her adjusted to some suffering in life, and so such dresses are justified.
Activity 2 In what ways do you think these notions of weakness and dependence came to be reflected in women’s clothing?
Answer Because women were considered weak and dependent, they needed to be strengthened in various ways, which included their clothing also. This reflected in the following items worn by women
1) Busk This was a stiff strip of made of wood, whalebone or steel worn in front of the corset to stiffen and support it.
2) Corset This was a closefitting and stiff inner bodice to give shape and support to the woman’s figure.
3) Stays These supported the whole body so that the women did not bend.
4) Steel Rod with Semicircle This was to support the chin of the woman so that it did not droop.
Page 170
Activity 1 Imagine yourself to be a Muslim pleader in the Allahabad High Court in the late 19th century. What kind of clothes would you wear? Would they be very different from what you wore at home?
Answer In court, I will wear a professional western dress with black coat under a black gown, white trousers and white tie, which was the normal dress of an advocate in court.
These would be totally different from what I would wear at home, where I will wear my comfortable traditional dress, a cotton pyjama and kurta.
Page 172
Activity 1 These two quotations (Sources E and F), from about the same period are from two different regions of India, Kerala and Bengal. What do they tell you about the very different notions of shame regarding women’s attire?
Source E
Some people supported the attempt to change women’s clothing, others opposed it.Any civilised nation is against the kind of clothing in use in the present time among women of our country. Indeed it is a sign of shamelessness. Educated men have ben greatly agitated about it, almost everyone wishes for another kind of civilised clothing…there is a custom here of women wearing fine and transparent clothing which reveals the whole body. Such shameless attire in no way allows one to frequent civilised company…..such clothes can stand in the way of our moral improvement. Soudamini Khastagir, Striloker Paricchad (1872) 
Source F
C Kesavan’s autobiography Jeevita Samaram recalls his motherinlaw’s first encounter looked good, but I felt ticklish wearing it. It took it off, folded it carefully and brimming with a blouse gifted by her sisterinlaw in the late 19h century: It looked good , but i felt ticklish wearing it.It took it off, folded it carefully and brimming with enthusiasm, showed it to my mother. She gave me a stern look and said “Where are you going to gallivant in this? Fold it and keep it in the box.”..I was scared of my mother. She could kill me. At night I wore the blouse and showed it to my husband said it looked good. [the next morning] I came out wearing the blouse…. I didn’t notice my mother coming. Suddenly I heard her break a piece from a coconut branch, When turned round, she was behind me fierce and furious. she said “Take it off… you want to walk around in shirts like Muslim women?” 
Answer Source E is giving the views in Bengal whereas Source F is from Kerala. We see that in Bengal, a woman’s exposure of the body by wearing transparent clothing was considered shameful.
It was not acceptable to society. However, in Kerala, the upper parts of women’s bodies were normally not covered with any clothes. If some women covered the upper part of the body, they were considered not traditional, although the current generation accepted it (her husband liked it).
So, these sources tell us that the nations of shame in two different regions of India were totally different.
Page 173
Activity 1 If you were a poor peasant would you have willingly taken to given up millmade cloth?
Answer Yes, I would have willingly taken to given up millmade cloth as would support the Swadeshi Movement, which has the interests of Indians in mind. However, it would have made me suffer some hardship, as khadi was costly and not easily available.
Page 176
Activity 1 Can you think of other reason why the use of khadi could not spread among some classes, castes and regions of India?
Answer The wearing of khadi could not spread all over India for the reasons given below.
1) Khadi was costly and most people could not spin it at home and then weave it for cloth. Rich people were not interested in khadi cloths: they preferred western outfits.
2) Caste regulation limited people to wearing certain type of dresses only and in some cases, khadi clothes of the kind traditionally worn by them were not available.
3) The remote regions of India were not even aware of what kind was, Why they should wear it and where to get it. So the wearing of khadi did not penetrate all over India.
Activities
Page 178
Activity 1 Imagine you are the 14yearold child of a trader. Write a paragraph on what you feel about the sumptuary laws in France.
Answer The sumptuary laws in France are aimed at controlling the behaviour of those considered socially inferior by the aristocracy. These laws prevented individuals from the lower strata of society, like my trading family, from wearing certain clothes, consuming certain foods and beverages, and hunting game in certain areas.
These laws have been in existence in France for 500 years. They do not want us enjoy our lives, even if we have the money to do so. This has also reduced our customers, as we are able to sell the good things to only a limited number of people. So, now my father is trying to sell the expensive goods in other European countries by exporting them.
Activity 2 Can you think of any expectations of proper and improper dress which exist today? Give examples of two forms of clothing which would be considered disrespectful in certain places but acceptable in others.
Answer The quality and applicability of dresses on various occasions and at various locations make them acceptable or disrespectful. Our expectations of a dress would be that it should be comfortable and not hampering movement, cover the body adequately so it does not appear indecent and that it should cover us against any adverse weather conditions like intense heat, freezing cold and so on.
Forms of clothing which may be considered acceptable or disrespectful in different situations can be as follows
(i) A pyjama kurta will be acceptable if worn at home, but will not suit a dress for a modern office job, where western style dress will be more suitable.
(ii) If a lawyer is arguing a case in Court and attends it wearing Jeans and Tshirt, it will be considered disrespectful to the Court. However, if the lawyer is attending a picnic with his family and friends with the same Jeans and Tshirt, it will be considered appropriate
Page 178 Questions
Question 1 Explain the reasons for the changes in clothing patterns and materials in the 18th century.
Answer Changes in clothing patterns and materials in the 18th century took place due to events like the French Revolution, which ended the restrictions imposed by the sumptuary laws.
Due to colonialism, different cultures came into contact with each other and were in turn influenced by each other’s cultures dress styles. Thus, changes took place in the clothing patterns.
Trade with India brought the beautiful and easy to maintain Indian chintzes within the reach of Europeans.
Question 2 What were the sumptuary laws in France?
Answer In medieval Europe, dress codes were sometimes imposed upon members of different layers of the society through actual laws which were spelt out in some detail.
From about 1294 to the time of the French Revolution in 1789, the people of France were expected to strictly follow what were known as ‘sumptuary laws’.
The sumptuary laws tried to control the behaviour of those considered social inferior, preventing them from wearing certain clothes, consuming certain food and beverages and hunting game in certain areas.
In France, the items of clothing a person could purchase per yea be regulated not only by income but also by social rank. The material to used for clothing was also legally prescribed.
Only royalty ( the ruling class) could wear expensive material like ermine and fur or silk and brocade.
The lower classes could not clothe themselves with materials that were associated with the aristocracy.
Question 3. Give any two examples of the ways in which European dress codes were different from Indian dress codes.
Answer
European Dress Code  Indian Dress code 
Europeans used to wear hats which were removed before social superiors as a sign of respect.  Indians used to wear turbans to protect them from the heat. It was a symbol of respect and could not be removed at will. 
The dress code in Europe was influenced by a persons economic and social status.  The dress code in India was influenced and followed by the caste system. 
Question 4 In 1805, a British official Benjamin Heyne, listed the manufactures of Bangalore which included the following
Women’s cloth of different musters and names
Coarse chintz
Muslins
Silk clothes
Of this list, which kind of cloth would have definitely fallen out of use in the early 1800’s and why?
Answer 4 In the early 1800s, the East India Company was exporting a large quantity of silk clothes, coarse chintz and muslin to England, as such clothes were not available in England or even in Europe. Due to this, such cloth material became expensive in India and so they fell out of use. Also, western clothes were influencing the men in Indian society and they were adopting to the millmade clothes quickly. This further led to reduction in use of silk, coarse chintz and muslin.
Question 5 Suggest reasons why women in 19th century India were obliged to continue wearing traditional Indian dress even when men switched over to more convenient Western clothing. What does this show about the position of women in society?
Answer In the 19th century, Indian men switched over to more convenient Western clothing but women were obliged to continue wearing traditional Indian dress because they were bound by the traditions, customs and social values of India. Indian society was a patriarchal society or a male dominated society and women were supposed to uphold the family honour and wear traditional clothes. This implies that the women were considered inferior to men in Indian society.
Question 6 Winston Churchill described Mahatma Gandhi as a “Seditious Middle Temple Lawyer’ now ‘posing as a half naked fakir’.What provoked such a comment and what does it tell you about the symbolic strength of Mahatma Gandhi’s dress?
Answer Winston Churchill described Mahatma Gandhi as a ‘Seditious Middle Temple Lawyer’ now posing as a half naked fakir because Mahatma Gandhi adopted the dress of the poorest Indian. He started wear a short dhoti without a shirt, which he even wore when he went to England for the Round Table Conference in 1931.
He wanted to identify himself with the poor common man of India support Swadeshi Movement and encourage boycott of British goods show resistance to the British. Discarding of Western clothing and adoption of the simple dhoti and sometimes a chadder served as a symbolic weapon against British rule.
Question 7 Why did Mahatma Gandhi’s dream of clothing the nation in khadi appeal only to some sections of Indians?
Answer Mahatma Gandhi’s dream of clothing the nation in khadi appealed only to some sections of Indian because
(i) Those who had been deprived of proper dress by caste norms for centuries were attracted to Western dress styles and other nationalists such Babashaheb Ambedkar never gave up his western style suit.
(il) Earlier, many dalits and other so called subordinate classes were prevented from dressing like upper castes: Woman of the Shanar caste were not allowed to cover their upper body parts or use umbrellas, wear shoes or golden ornaments. They now started experimenting and wearing Western clothes and did not favour khadi.
(iii) Khadi was expensive and the poor could not afford it.
(iv) Khadi was usually white and in India white clothes are worn when there is a death. Widows wear white saris and the dead body covered with a white cloth. So khadi was not worn by many people.
(v) Khadi was very costly to buy and most people could not mane home. So, the poor people could not wear khadi.
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Activity . What does the sports curriculum of a nineteenth century girls school tell us about the behaviour considered proper for girls at that time?
Answer The behaviour considered proper for nineteenth century girls in school was that the girls were not to participate in games which required vigorous exercise. They could either do walking, play games like croquet and exercises like skipping, which were light exercises.
Activities Page 157
Activity 1 Imagine a conversation between Thomas Arnold, the headmaster of Rugby School, and Mahatma Gandhi on the value of cricket in education. What would each say? Write out a conversation in the form of a dialogue.
Answer A sample conversation is given below
Thomas Arnold (TA) I am surprised that you are opposing the inclusion of cricket as a game in the schools, Mr Gandhi.
Mahatma Gandhi (MG) I think only the games which suit the boys and are traditionally played in India should be included in schools.
TA Why do say this? Cricket is a good exercise, besides building up team spirit and also leadership qualities in the boys. It fosters sportsman’s spirt.It is really a gentleman’s game.
MG I think cricket takes a long time to play. One whole day wasted on just a game! Also it is too expensive. Indian boys will not be able to buy all the equipment needed for a game of cricket. Besides, it reminds us of you British. We want the boys to enjoy games, not think of how we have been colonised.
TA Cricket is a modern game which imparts discipline to the boys. You have no such Indian traditional game.
MG No, I do not agree. Cricket is dividing our nation on a communal basis and so should not be included.
Questions Page 157
Question 1 Test cricket is a unique game in many ways. Discuss some of the ways in which it is different from other team games. How are the pecularities of test cricket shaped by its historical beginnings as a village game?
Answer Test cricket is a unique game in many ways and different from other team games.
(1) One of the peculiarities of test cricket is that a match can go on for five days and still end in a draw. No other modern team sport takes even half as much time to complete.
(i) A football match is generally over in an hour and a half of playing time.
(iii) Even baseball a long drawn out bat and ball game by standards of modern sport, completes hire innings in less than half the time that it takes to play a limited overs match the shortened version of modern cricket.
(iv) Most of the team sports, such as hockey and football lay down the dimensions of the playing area cricket does not. Grounds can be oval like the Adelaide Oval or nearly circular like Chepauk in Chennai.
(v) Cricket began as a village game and crickets connection with the rural past can be seen in the length of a test match. Originally, cricket matches had no time limit. The game went on for as long as it took to bowl out a side twice because the rhythms of village life were slower and cricket rules were made before the Industrial Revolution.
(vi) In the same way, vagueness about the size of a cricket ground is a result of its rural origins. Cricket was originally played on country commons, unfenced land that was public property. The size of the commons varied from one village to another, so there were no designated boundaries or boundary hits.
Question 2. Describe one way in which in the 19th century, technology brought about a change in equipment and give one example where no change in equipment took place.
Answer In the 19th century with changing times the game of cricket both changed and also remained true to its origins in rural England.
(i) Change in Equipment In the matter of protective equipment, cricket has been influenced by technological change. The invention of vulcanised rubber led to the introduction of pads in 1848, and protective gloves soon afterwards followed by helmets made of out of metal and synthetic light weight materials. Once the bat was made of a single piece of wood. Now it consists of two pieces, the blade which is made out of the wood of the willow tree and the handle which is made out of cane.
(ii) No Change in Equipment Cricket’s most important tools are all made of natural, preindustrial materials.
The bat is made of wood as are the stumps and the bails.
The ball is made with leather, twine and cork,
Even today both bat and ball are handmade, not industrially manufactured.
Question 3. Explain why cricket became popular in India and the West Indies. Can you give reasons why it did not become popular in countries in South America?
Answer The preindustrial oddness of cricket made it a hard game to export.
It took root only in countries that the British conquered and ruled.
In these colonies, cricket was established as a popular sport either by white settlers (as in South Africa Zimbabwe, Australia, New Zealand, the West Indies and Kenya) or by local elites who wanted to copy the habits of their colonial masters as in India.
Cricket was a British game. It did not become popular in the countries of South America because the British did not colonise and rule these countries as they did in Asia and Africa and therefore these countries remained unexposed to cricket in the early years of the game.
Question 4. Give brief explanations for the following.
(a) The Parsis were the first Indian community to set up a cricket club in India.
(b) Mahatma Gandhi condemned the Pentangular tournament.
(c) The name of ICC was changed from the Imperial Cricket Conference to the International Cricket Conference.
(d) The shift of the ICC headquarters from London to Dubai.
Answer The first Indian community to start playing the game of cricket in India was the small community of Zoroastrians, the Parsis.
(a) They came into close contact with the British because of their interest in trade and were the first Indian community to Westernise themselves.
The Parsis founded the first Indian Cricket Club, the Oriental Cricket Club, in Bombay in 1848,
Parsi clubs were funded and sponsored by Parai businessmen like the Tatas and the Wadias.
The Parsis built their own Gymkhana to play cricket in.
A Parsi team beat the Bombay Gymkhana at cricket in 1889.
The establishment of the Parsi Gymkhana became a precedent for other Indians who, in turn, established clubs based on the idea of a religious community.
(b) Mahatma Gandhi condemned the Pentagular tournament as a communally divisive competition that was out of place in a time when nationalists were trying to unite India’s diverse population into a cohesive force, a force which would strengthen the National Movement.
(c) The name of the ICC was changed from the Imperial Cricket Conference to International Cricket Conference as late as 1965. Till then it was dominated by its founding members, England and Australia, which retained the right to veto its proceedings.
This priveleged position of England and Australia was scrapped in 1989 in favour of equal membership of all the test playing countries.
(d) The shift of the headquarters of the ICC from London to Dubai took place because the technology of satellite television and the worldwide reach of multinational television companies created a global market for cricket. Matches in Sydney could be watched live in Surat.
Since India had the largest viewership for the game amongst the cricket playing nations and the largest market in the cricketing world the game’s centre of gravity shifted to South Asia.
This shift was symbolised by the shifting of the ICC headquarters from London to tax free Dubai.
The shifting of the ICC headquarters from London to Dubai marked the end of the AngloAustralian domination over the game of cricket.
Question 5. How have advances in technology, especially television technology affected the development of contemporary cricket?
Answer The 1970’s was the decade in which cricket was transformed.Kerry Packer, an Australian television tycoon, signed up fifty of the world’s leading cricketers and for two years conducted unofficial tests and one day internationals under the name of world series cricket. Televised coverage expanded the audience for the game by beaming cricket into small towns and villages. Coloured dress, protective helmets, field restrictions and cricket under lights became popular. Cricket boards became rich by selling television rights to television companies.
Television channels made money by selling sports to companies for large sums of money to air their commercials to the captive television audience. Continuous television coverage made the cricketers celebrities, who now made large sums of money by making commercials for a wide range of products from tyres to colas on television. The technology of satellite television and the worldwide reach of multinational companies created a global market for cricket, making it highly popular.
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