Rules for IUPAC nomenclature of Branched chain alkanes

Longest chain rule: Select the longest continuos chain of carbon atoms.This is called the parent chain while all other carbon atoms which are not included in the parent chain are called branch chain or side chains or substituent.it may be noted that the longest chain may or may not be straight but it must be…

Functional Or Characteristic Group

Hydrocarbons are the parent organic compounds.All other compounds are considered to have been derived from them by replacing one or more of their hydrogen atoms by some other more reactive atom or group. R—H ——–> R—G -H and +G Each organic molecule consist of two parts i.e. R and G. The first part, i.e. R…

Nomenclature Of Different Classes Of Organic Compounds

Compounds of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. These are further divided into two classes: saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon. 1) Saturated hydrocarbons- alkanes Hydrocarbons in which all the carbon atoms are linked to one another by only single bonds are called saturated hydrocarbons. These ma be either acyclic or cyclic hydrocarbons. Saturated acyclic hydrocarbons are…

Classification Of Organic Compounds

The simplest organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. Organic compounds have been divided into two categories depending upon the nature of their carbon skeleton.These are: 1) Acyclic or open chain compounds 2) Cyclic or closed chain compounds Acyclic or open chain compounds These compounds contain open chains of carbon atoms in…

Structural Representation Of Organic Compounds

Complete and Condensed Formulae Each pair of electron making a covalent bond is represented by a dash (—). Two dashes represent a double bond and three dashes represent a triple bond. Such structural representation are called complete structural formulae or graphic or displayed formulae. These structural formulae can be further condensed by enclosing the repetitive…

Homologous Series

All the organic compounds have been divided into different families or group depending upon their structure and chemical properties. A homologous series is defined as a family or group of structurally similar organic compounds all the members of which contain the same functional group, Show a gradation in physical and similarity in chemical properties and…

Shapes Of Simple Organic Compounds

Methane molecule A molecule of methane contains four C-C , σ bonds. Orbital picture of methane Bond length and bond angles  Ethane Molecule It contains 6 C-H σ bonds and one C-C σ bond. Orbital picture of ethane Bond lengths and bond angle in ethane Ethene molecule The carbon-carbon double bond of ethene consists of a strong carbon-carbon σ-…

Tetracovalency Of Covalent Compounds

Compounds like urea, sugars, oils, fats, dyes, proteins, vitamins which were isolated directly or indirectly from living organisms, such as animals and plants were called organic compounds. The branch of chemistry which deal with the study of these compounds was called organic chemistry. Compounds like common salt, marble , alums, vitriols which were isolated from…

Silicates

A large number of silicate minerals exist in nature. Some of the important minerals are : feldspar i.e. Albite NaAlSi3O8 , zeolites e.g. chabazite Ca2[(AlO2)4 (SiO2)8.H2O, micas [KAl2(Si3AlO10(OH)2] and asbestos [Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4]. The basic structural unit in silicate is the SiO44- terahedra. The two important man-made silicates are glass and cement. Silicates are the compounds in…

Silicones

Silicones are synthetic organosilicon polymers containing repeated R2SiO units held by Si-O-Si linkages. These compounds have general formula (R2SiO)n where R=methyl or aryl group. Preparation When methyl chloride reacts with silicon in the presence of copper as a catalyst at 570 K , various types of methyl substituted chlorosilanes of formula CH3SiCl3 , (CH3)2SiCl2, (CH3)3SiCl along…

Allotropes Of Carbon

The phenomenon of existence of an element in two or more forms which have different physical properties but identical chemical properties is called allotropy and the different forms are called allotropes. Carbon exists in 2 allotropic forms: 1) Crystalline 2) Amorphous Crystalline form of carbon: 4 allotropes of carbon having well defined crystal structure are:…

Silicon Dioxide, Silica

Silicon dioxide is known as Silica , SiO2. 95 % of the earth crust is made up of silica and silicates.It occurs in several crystallographic forms , namely , quartz , cristobalite and tridymite.These crystalline forms are interconvertible at suitable temperature. Structure Silicon dioxide is covalent , three- dimensional network solid in which each silicon…

Carbon dioxide

Preparation 1) It is prepared by burning carbon, fossil fuels and other organic compounds in excess of air or oxygen. C (s) + O2 (g) ——-> CO2 (g) C5H12 (g) + 8 O2 (g) ——–> 5 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (g) 2) In the laboratory , it is prepared by the action of dilute…

Carbon Monoxide

Preparation 1) It is formed by incomplete combustion of carbon and carbon containing fuels. 2 C + O2 ——> 2 CO This type of incomplete combustion occurs during burning of petrol or diesel in automobile and therefore CO is always present in automobile exhausts.It is also present in volcanic gases and gases coming out of…

Chemical Properties Of Carbon Family

Oxidation State 1) Oxidation state of carbon The general valence shell electronic configuration of elements of group 14 is ns2 np2 where n is the number of outermost principal shell. These elements can attain inert gas configuration either by losing or gaining 4 electrons forming M4+ or M4- ions. The C4+ ion does not exist…

Physical Properties Of Carbon Family

Group 14 include Carbon (C) , Silicon (Si), Germanium(Ge) ,tin(Sn) ,lead(Pb) and ununquadium (uuq) which is radioactive. Occurrence Carbon is the 17th most abundant element by weight in the earth crust. It occurs in the native state in form of coal ,graphite and diamond. In combined state it occurs widely as metal carbonates, hydrocarbons ,carbohydrates…

Chemical Properties Of Boron Family

Oxidation state The elements of group 13 have to two electrons in the s- orbital and one electron in the p-orbital of the valence shell. These elements are expected to show a uniform oxidation state of +3. Boron and aluminium which show an oxidation state of +3 only but gallium, indium and thallium due to…

Anomalous Behaviour Of Carbon

Carbon, the first member of group 14 ,shows an anomalous behaviour i.e. differ from rest of the members of its family. The main reason for this difference are : 1) exceptionally small atomic size b) higher electronegativity c)higher ionisation enthalpy d) absence of d orbital in the valence shell The main point of differences are:…